Authors:Z. Honglin, Y. Xiufang, Y. Li, L. Fenghua, N. Zhaodong, and S. Haitao
The power–time curves of a biological oscillation system were determined for different temperatures, acidities and carbon
sources, by using a 2277 thermal activity monitor. The apparent activation energy and order of the oscillation reaction were
calculated from the induction period (tin) and the first oscillation period (tp). The regularity of the biological oscillation system is discussed.
Authors:S. Tang, L. Li, Q.Y. Zhou, W.Z. Liu, H.X. Zhang, W. Z. Chen, and Y.F. Ding
Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones that play important roles in diverse aspects during plant growth and development. A series of GA synthesis and metabolism genes have been reported or proved to have essential functions in different plant species, while a small number of GA 2-oxidase genes have been cloned or reported in wheat. Previous studies have provided some important findings on the process of GA biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in its related pathways. These may facilitate understanding of the complicated process underlying GA synthesis and metabolism in wheat. In this study, GA 2-oxidase genes TaGA2ox1-1, TaGA2ox1-2, TaGA2ox1-3, TaGA2ox1-4, TaGA2ox1-5, and TaGA2ox1-6 were identified and further overexpressed in rice plants to investigate their functions in GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway. Results showed overexpression of GA 2-oxidase genes in rice disrupted the GA metabolic pathways and induced catalytic responses and regulated other GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway genes, which further leading to GA signaling disorders and diversity in phenotypic changes in rice plants.
Authors:X. Han, Y. Hu, Z. Lin, S. Li, F. Zhao, Z. Liu, J. Yi, L. Zhang, and X. Ren
Effects of fullerenes including FS, EFS and pure C60 on thermal behaviors of polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been studied by employing thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry
(TG-DTG), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and off-line furnace-type pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
(Py-GC/MS). The products were collected by Cambridge filter pad which was widely used in analyzing the combustion products
of cigarette. The results showed that the addition of fullerenes obviously restrained the thermal decomposition of PEG. The
initial decomposition temperatures (IDT) and maximum decomposition peak temperatures (MDT) were evidently postponed by the
addition of fullerenes. Pyrolysis products with one or two hydroxyl end groups obviously increased with the addition of 10%
C60. The reasons of the changes were discussed from the aspects of reaction mechanisms.
Authors:C.L. Liu, X.Y. Wang, Z.M. Wang, S.S. Li, C.T. Xin, H.F. Wang, B. Li, and L. Jiang
The migration of 99Tc in a weak loess aquifer was investigated in-situ with undisturbed aquifer medium columns. The columns were obtained horizontally at a depth of 3236 m in an Underground Research Facility (URF). Quartz containing 3H (HTO) and 99Tc (in the form of 99TcO4-) was introduced into one end of the columns and the columns were covered tightly. Aquifer water was introduced into the columns directly from an experimental shaft in the UFR. Effluents from the columns were collected and the activity of 3H and 99Tc were determined with a liquid scintillation analyzer. The breakthrough curves of 3H and 99Tc indicate that 99Tc migrates a little faster than that 3H does in the aquifer.
Authors:Z. Wu, F. Li, L. Huang, Y. Shi, X. Jin, S. Fang, K. Chuang, R. Lyon, F. Harris, and S. Cheng
The thermal mechanical properties and degradation behaviors were studied on fibers prepared from two high-performance, heterocyclic polymers, poly(p-phenylenebenzobisthiazole) (PBZT) and poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) (PBZO). Our research demonstrated that these two fibers exhibited excellent mechanical properties and outstanding thermal and thermo-oxidative stability. Their long-term mechanical tensile performance at high temperatures was found to be critically associated with the stability of the C—O or C—S linkage at the heterocyclic rings on these polymers' backbones. PBZO fibers with the C—O linkages displayed substantially higher thermal stability compared to PBZT containing C—S linkages. High resolution pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry provided the information of the pyrolyzates' compositions and distributions as well as their relationships with the structures of PBZT and PBZO. Based on the analysis of the compositions and distributions of all pyrolyzates at different temperatures, it was found that the thermal degradation mechanisms for both of these heterocyclic polymers were identical. Kevlar®-49 fibers were also studied under the same experimental conditions in order to make a comparison of thermo-oxidative stability and long-term mechanical performance at high temperatures with PBZO and PBZT fibers. The data of two high-performance aromatic polyimide fibers were also included as references.
Authors:L. Yang, Li Sun, Fen Xu, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, Z. Zhao, C. Song, R. Wu, and Riko Ozao
The microcalorimetric method has been used to study the effects of cefpiramide and ceftizoxime sodium on the E. coli growth. The results revealed that these two cephalosporins may alter the metabolic way of the E. coli. Moreover, the lethal doses of cefpiramide and ceftizoxime sodium are 2.000 and 0.2000 μg mL−1, respectively. Combining with the relationships between growth rate constant (k), the maximum power output (Pm), the time corresponding to the maximum power output (tm) and cephalosporins concentration (C), one can draw the conclusion that the ceftizoxime sodium has a stronger inhibition effects on the growth of E. coli than that of cefpiramide and they both have the possibility to induce the drug fever.
Authors:C. Li, C. Wang, X. Liu, Z. Zheng, L. Wang, Q. Zhu, M. Kang, T. Chen, and C. Liu
In terms of pre-safety assessment of a potential site for high-level radioactive wastes disposal in China, the geochemical
behavior of key radionuclides which tend to be released from the repository must be thoroughly investigated. 99Tc is a long-lived fission product with appreciable productivity in nuclear fuel, and Tc (+7) has unlimited solubility in
near-field geochemical environments. In this study, the effects of ionic strength and humic acid on 99TcO4− sorption and diffusion in Beishan granite were investigated with through-diffusion and batch sorption experiments. Results
indicated that the effective diffusion coefficients (De) of 99TcO4− in Beishan granite varied from 1.07 × 10−12 to 1.28 × 10−12 m2/s without change with ionic strength, while the distribution coefficients (Kd) negatively correlated with ionic strength of the rock/water system. This study also indicates that there is no evident influence
of humic acid concentration on the diffusion behavior of 99TcO4− in Beishan granite, due to the limited interaction between humic acid and 99TcO4−.
Authors:Z. Fengqi, G. Hongxu, L. Yang, H. Rongzu, C. Pei, G. Sheng-li, Y. Xu-wu, and S. Qizhen
The constant-volume combustion energies of
the lead salts of 2-hydroxy-3,5-dinitropyridine (2HDNPPb) and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitropyridine
(2HDNPPb(s) and 4HDNPP(s)),
were determined as –4441.922.43 and –4515.741.92
kJ mol–1 , respectively, at 298.15 K. Their
standard enthalpies of combustion, Δcm
H θ(2HDNPPb(s) and 4HDNPPb(s), 298.15 K), and standard enthalpies of formation,
Δrm H θ(2HDNPPb(s) and 4HDNPPb(s),
298.15 K) were as –4425.812.43, –4499.631.92 kJ
mol–1 and –870.432.76, –796.652.32
kJ mol–1 , respectively. As two combustion
catalysts, 2HDNPPb and 4HDNPPb can enhance the burning rate and reduce the
pressure exponent of RDX–CMDB propellant.
Authors:X.M. Fang, H.Z. She, C. Wang, X.B. Liu, Y.S. Li, J. Nie, R.W. Ruan, T. Wang, and Z.L. Yi
Waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown throughout the world for its specific quality. Fertilization and planting density are two crucial factors that affect waxy wheat yield and photosynthetic capacity. The objectives of the research were to determine the effects of fertilization and planting density on photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components of waxy wheat, including Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, PH, HI, Pn, Gs, Ci, E and WUE using the method of field experiment, in which there were three levels (150, 300, and 450 kg ha−1) of fertilizer application rate and three levels (1.35, 1.8, and 2.25 × 106 plants ha−1) of planting density. The results suggested that photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components had close relationship with fertilization levels and planting density. Under the same plant density, with the increase of fertilization, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI, Pn, Gs, E and WUE increased and then decreased, PH increased, but Ci decreased. Under the same fertilization, with the increase of plant density, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI increased and then decreased, PH, Pn, Gs and E increased, PH and WUE declined. The results also showed that F2 (300 kg ha−1) and D2 (1.8 × 106 plants ha−1) was a better match in this experiment, which could obtain a higher grain yield 4961.61 kg ha−1. Consequently, this combination of fertilizer application rate and plant densities are useful to get high yield of waxy wheat.
Authors:J. Lu, G.Z. Ji, G. Li, Y.F. Wu, J. Yang, S.L. Lin, D.L. Yang, J.N. Zhao, and W.M. Xiu
Global rice supplies have been found contaminated with unapproved varieties of genetically modified (GM) rice in recent years, which has led to product recalls in several of countries. Faster and more effective detection of GM contamination can prevent adulterated food, feed and seed from being consumed and grown, minimize the potential environmental, health or economic damage. In this study, a simple, reliable and cost-effective multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for identifying genetic modifications of TT51-1, Kemingdao1 (KMD1) and Kefeng6 (KF6) rice was developed by using the event-specific fragment. The limit of detection (LOD) for each event in the multiplex PCR is approximately 0.1%. Developed multiplex PCR assays can provide a rapid and simultaneous detection of GM rice.