Authors:Y. Li, G. Fei, Z. Honglin, L. Zhen, Z. Liqiang, and L. Ganzuo
The power–time curves of micellar formation of two anionic surfactants, sodium laurate (SLA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS),
in N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA) in the presence of various long-chain alcohols (1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 1-nonanol and 1-decanol)
were measured by titration microcalorimetry at 298 K. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of SLA and SDS under various
conditions at 298 K were obtained based on the power–time curves. Thermodynamic parameters (
) for micellar systems at 298 K were evaluated according to the power–time curves and the mass action model. The influences
of the number of carbon-atom and the concentration of alcohol were investigated. Moreover, combined the thermodynamic parameters
at 303, 308 and 313 K in our previous work and those of 298 K in the present work for SLA and SDS in DMA in the presence of
long-chain alcohols, an enthalpy–entropy compensation effect was observed. The values of the enthalpy of micellization calculated
by direct and indirect methods were made a comparison.
Authors:B. Hu, Y. Song, L. Wang, Q. Zhang, J. Li, K. Wei, Y. Chen, and L. Zhang
Electronic stopping power of 19F in Ni, Pd and Gd was measured and compared to Mstar and SRIM calculation as well as experimental results published in literature.
It turns out that the present electronic stopping power agrees reasonably well with them.
Authors:G. Liu, L. Zhang, X. Qu, Y. Li, J. Gao, and L. Yang
A new model has been deduced by assumed autocatalytic reactions. It includes two rate constants, k1 and k2, two reaction orders, m and n, and the initial concentration of [OH]. The model proposed has been applied to the curing reaction of a system of bisphenol-S
epoxy resin (BPSER), with4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) as a curing agent. The curing reactions were studied by means of
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Analysis of DSC data indicated that an autocatalytic behavior showed in the curing
reaction. The new model was found to fit to the experimental data exactly. Rate constants, k1 and k2 were observed to be greater when curing temperature increased. The activation energies for k1 and k2 were 95.28 and 39.69 kJ mol–1, respectively. Diffusion control was incorporated to describe the cure in the latter stages.
Authors:Z.L. Li, H.Y. Li, G. Chen, X.J. Liu, C.L. Kou, S.Z. Ning, Z.W. Yuan, M. Hao, D.C. Liu, and L.Q. Zhang
Seven Glu-A1m allelic variants of the Glu-A1mx genes in Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum, designated as 1Ax2.1a, 1Ax2.1b, 1Ax2.1c, 1Ax2.1d, 1Ax2.1e, 1Ax2.1f, and 1Ax2.1g were characterized. Their authenticity was confirmed by successful expression of the coding regions in E. coli, and except for the 1Ax2.1a with the presence of internal stop codons at position of 313 aa, all correspond to the subunit in seeds. However, all the active six genes had a same DNA size although their encoding subunits showed different molecular weight. Our study indicated that amino acid residue substitutions rather than previously frequently reported insertions/deletions played an important role on the subunit evolution of these Glu-A1mx alleles. Since variation in the Glu-A1x locus in common wheat is rare, these novel genes at the Glu-A1mx can be used as candidate genes for further wheat quality improvement.
Authors:L. Qiang-Guo, H. Yi, L. Xu, Y. Li-Juan, X. Sheng-Xiong, Y. De-Jun, and L. Yi
The complex from reaction of neodymium chloride six-hydrate with salicylic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline, Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO), was synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, molar conductance, and thermogravimatric analysis. The standard
molar enthalpies of solution of [NdCl3·6H2O(s)], [2C7H6O3(s)], [C9H7NO(s)] and [Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s)] in a mixed solvent of anhydrous ethanol, dimethyl formamide (DMF) and perchloric acid were determined by calorimetry at
298.15 K. Based on Hess’ law, a new chemical cycle was designed, and the enthalpy change of the reaction
was determined to be ΔrHmΘ=117.89±0.37 kJ mol−1. From data in the literature, through Hess’ law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H7NO)(s) was estimated to be ΔfHmΘ[Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s), 298.15 K]=−2031.80±8.6 kJ mol−1.
Authors:N. Li, Z. Yu, L. Wang, Y. Zheng, J. Jia, Q. Wang, M. Zhu, X. Liu, X. Xia, and W. Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on the learning and memory ability and expression of tau protein phosphorylation (P-tau) and beta amyloid protein (Aβ) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% groups. On the 21
of postnatal day, the learning and memory ability of the mouse pups was tested by Water Maze test and the Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of the offspring were also determined. The expression of P-tau and Aβ in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (
< 0.05). In Water Maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of the control group (
< 0.05). The expression of P-tau and Aβ was increased in Pb exposed groups than that of the control group (
< 0.05). Tau hyper-phosphorylation and Aβ increase in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory associated with maternal Pb exposure.
Authors:X.L. Jiang, G.F. Chen, X.J. Li, G. Li, Z.G. Ru, and J.C. Tian
This study aimed to clarify the genetic mechanisms behind wheat flour color. Flour colorrelated traits (L*, a*, and b*) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity are important parameters that influence the end-use quality of wheat. Dissecting the genetic bases and exploring important chromosomal loci of these traits are extremely important for improving wheat quality. The diverse panel of 205 elite wheat varieties (lines) was genotyped using a highdensity Illumina iSelect 90K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assay to disclose the genetic mechanism of flour color-related traits and PPO activity. In 2 different environments and their mean values (MV), 28, 30, 24, and 12 marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified for L*, a*, b* traits, and PPO activity, respectively. A single locus could explain from 5.52% to 20.01% of the phenotypic variation for all analyzed traits. Among them, 5 highly significant SNPs (P ≤ 0.0001), 11 stable SNPs (detected in all environments) and 25 multitrait MTAs were identified. Especially, BS00000020_51 showed pleiotropic effects on L*, a*, and b*, and was detected in all environments with the highest phenotypic contribution rates. Furthermore, this SNP was also found to be co-associated with wheat grain hardness, ash content, and pasting temperature of starch in previous studies. The identification of these significantly associated SNPs is helpful in revealing the genetic mechanisms of wheat colorrelated traits, and also provides a reference for follow-up molecular marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding.
Authors:F. Cui, J. Li, A. Ding, C. Zhao, X. Li, D. Feng, X. Wang, L. Wang, and H. Wang
To comprehensively understand the genetic basis of plant height (PH), quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for internode lengths, internode component indices and plant height component index (PHCI) were firstly conducted in the present study. Two related F8:9 recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations comprising 485 and 229 lines were used. Two hundred and nine putative additive QTL for the eight traits were identified, 35 of which showed significance in at least three trials. Of these, at least 11 pairwise QTL were common to the two populations. PH components at the QTL level had different effects on PH, confirming our previous multivariate conditional analysis (Cui et al. 2011). Eleven major QTL that showed consistency in expression across environments should be of great value in the genetic improvement of PH in wheat. The results above will enhance the understanding of the genetic basis of PH in wheat.
Authors:A. Ding, F. Cui, J. Li, C. Zhao, L. Wang, X. Qi, Y. Bao, X. Li, and H. Wang
Grain yield (GY) and yield components (YC) were investigated using two F8: 9 RILs, comprising 229 and 485 lines, respectively. A conditional analysis was conducted to generate conditional values for GY independent of each YC. Then both unconditional and conditional values were analyzed to map QTLs with additive effect. In both RILs, up to 23 unconditional and conditional QTLs were detected. However, only two QTLs were identified repeatedly among environments. All QTLs, except for 4 detected in unconditional mapping, were also identified as conditional QTLs, whereas a number of QTLs were additionally detected in conditional mapping. The number of QTLs detected that affected GY was different with respect to component-special influences. Our results revealed that the contributions of YC influencing QTL expression related to GY differed.
Authors:L. Wang, F. Cui, A. Ding, J. Li, J. Wang, C. Zhao, X. Li, D. Feng, and H. Wang
A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 302 lines derived from a cross of Weimai 8 × Luohan 2 was used to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for plant height (PH) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Possible genetic relationships between PH and PH components (PHC), including spike length (SL) and internode length from the first to the fourth node counted from the top, abbreviated as FIITL, SITL, TITL and FOITL, respectively, were evaluated at the QTL level. A QTL for PH was mapped using data on PH and on PH conditioned by PHC using the IciMapping V3.0 software. Conditional QTL mapping proved that, at the QTL level, SL contributed the least to PH, followed by FIITL and FOITL, while TITL had the strongest influence on PH, followed by SITL. These results indicate that the conditional QTL mapping method can be used to evaluate possible genetic relationships between PH and PHC, and that it can efficiently and precisely reveal counteracting QTL, which will enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of PH in wheat.