Aegilops sharonensis (Sharon goatgrass) is a valuable source of novel high molecular weight glutenin subunits, resistance to wheat rust, powdery mildew, and insect pests. In this study, we successfully hybridized Ae. sharonensis as the pollen parent to common wheat and obtained backcross derivatives. F1 intergeneric hybrids were verified using morphological observation and cytological and molecular analyses. The phenotypes of the hybrid plants were intermediate between Ae. sharonensis and common wheat. Observations of mitosis in root tip cells and meiosis in pollen mother cells revealed that the F1 hybrids possessed 28 chromosomes. Chromosome pairing at metaphase I of the pollen mother cells in the F1 hybrid plants was low, and the meiotic configuration was 25.94 I + 1.03 II (rod). Two pairs of primers were screened out from 150 simple sequence repeat markers, and primer WMC634 was used to identified the presence of the genome of Ae. sharonensis. Sequencing results showed that the F1 hybrids contained the Ssh genome of Ae. sharonensis. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile showed that the alien high molecular weight glutenin subunits of Ae. sharonensis were transferred into the F1 and backcross derivatives. The new wheat-Ae. sharonensis derivatives that we have produced will be valuable for increasing resistance to various diseases of wheat and for improving the quality of bread wheat.
Authors:X.M. Fang, H.Z. She, C. Wang, X.B. Liu, Y.S. Li, J. Nie, R.W. Ruan, T. Wang, and Z.L. Yi
Waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown throughout the world for its specific quality. Fertilization and planting density are two crucial factors that affect waxy wheat yield and photosynthetic capacity. The objectives of the research were to determine the effects of fertilization and planting density on photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components of waxy wheat, including Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, PH, HI, Pn, Gs, Ci, E and WUE using the method of field experiment, in which there were three levels (150, 300, and 450 kg ha−1) of fertilizer application rate and three levels (1.35, 1.8, and 2.25 × 106 plants ha−1) of planting density. The results suggested that photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components had close relationship with fertilization levels and planting density. Under the same plant density, with the increase of fertilization, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI, Pn, Gs, E and WUE increased and then decreased, PH increased, but Ci decreased. Under the same fertilization, with the increase of plant density, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI increased and then decreased, PH, Pn, Gs and E increased, PH and WUE declined. The results also showed that F2 (300 kg ha−1) and D2 (1.8 × 106 plants ha−1) was a better match in this experiment, which could obtain a higher grain yield 4961.61 kg ha−1. Consequently, this combination of fertilizer application rate and plant densities are useful to get high yield of waxy wheat.
Authors:X. Zhang, Y. Chen, Y. Wei, W. Lu, H. Liao, Y. Liu, X. Yang, X. Li, L. Yang, L. Li, and R. Li
Partial abortion of gametes possessing
genotype at locus
is responsible for hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies in rice (
L.), while a single wide compatibility (WC) allele
can restore normal hybrid fertility between the two groups. In this study, Pei’ai 64S, one of the most popular WC line widely used for subspecific hybrid rice breeding program in South China was studied for location of its
locus. Twenty SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers derived from Cornell SSR linkage map and 9 developed using sequences from GenBank database were employed to perform bulked segregant analysis of the mapping population derived from a three-way cross (Pei’ai 64S/T8//Akihikari) to tag fine location of the hybrid sterility locus,
locus was mapped on chromosome 6 approximately 0.2 cM from GXR6 and RM276 SSR markers. This tight linkage of the markers and the S-5 locus would be very useful for efficient marker-assisted selection for WC varieties and for map-based cloning of the gene.
Authors:Shan-Shan Ma, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Sheng Zhang, Patrick D. Worhunsky, Nan Zhou, Jin-Tao Zhang, Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, and Xiao-Yi Fang
Background and aims
Deficits in cognitive control represent a core feature of addiction. Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) offers an ideal model to study the mechanisms underlying cognitive control deficits in addiction, eliminating the confounding effects of substance use. Studies have reported behavioral and neural deficits in reactive control in IGD, but it remains unclear whether individuals with IGD are compromised in proactive control or behavioral adjustment by learning from the changing contexts.
Here, fMRI data of 21 male young adults with IGD and 21 matched healthy controls (HC) were collected during a stop-signal task. We employed group independent component analysis to investigate group differences in temporally coherent, large-scale functional network activities during post-error slowing, the typical type of behavioral adjustments. We also employed a Bayesian belief model to quantify the trial-by-trial learning of the likelihood of stop signal – P(Stop) – a broader process underlying behavioral adjustment, and identified the alterations in functional network responses to P(Stop).
The results showed diminished engagement of the fronto-parietal network during post-error slowing, and weaker activity in the ventral attention and anterior default mode network in response to P(Stop) in IGD relative to HC.
Discussion and conclusions
These results add to the literatures by suggesting deficits in updating and anticipating conflicts as well as in behavioral adjustment according to contextual information in individuals with IGD.
Authors:S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda, D. K. Upreti, G. K. Mishra, M. Haji Moniri, E. Farkas, J. S. Park, B. G. Lee, D. Liu, J.-J. Woo, R. G. U. Jayalal, S.-O. Oh, and J.-S. Hur
Data on 54 new for China, India, Korea and Russia species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, including 22 new for science taxa of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, i.e.: Acarospora ulleungdoensis, Amandinea trassii, Aspicilia geumodoensis, Biatora ivanpisutii, Caloplaca patwolseleyae, Catillaria ulleungdoensis, Coenogonium agonimieoides, Gyalidea austrocoreana, G. ropalosporoides, Opegrapha briancoppinsii, O. ulleungdoensis, Phyllopsora loekoesii, Psoroglaena coreana, Psorotichia gyelnikii, Rinodina oxneriana, Scoliciosporum jasonhurii, Staurothele oxneri, Stigmidium coarctatae, Thelocarpon ulleungdoense, Thelopsis loekoesii, Toninia poeltiana, Unguiculariopsis helmutii, and and 7 new species to China (Caloplaca ussuriensis, Megaspora rimisorediata, Rinodina xanthophaea, Rusavskia dasanensis, Xanthoria splendens, Zeroviella coreana, Z. esfahanensis), and 1 new species to India (Zeroviella esfahanensis), and 24 new species to Korea (Agonimia blumii, Arthonia rinodinicola, Buelliella minimula, Dactylospora australis, Endococcus propinguus, Halecania santessonii, Laeviomyces aff. fallaciosus, Lecanora albescens, L. layana, Lecidella scabra, Micarea farinosa, Minutoexcipula aff. mariana, Opegrapha anomaea, O. aff. xerica, Phoma aff. lecanorina, Polycoccum rubellianae, Porina nucula, Pyrenidium actinellum, Rhexophiale rhexoblephara, Rimularia badioatra, Rinodina confragosa, R. milvina, R. occulta, Tremella phaeophysciae), as well as 1 new species to Russia (Verseghya klarae) are provided. Furthermore new for science species of lichenicolous fungus Polycoccum clauderouxii from China is described. Four new combinations, i.e.: Biatora pseudosambuci (Basionym: Lecanora pseudosambuci S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Buellia pseudosubnexa (Basionym: Hafellia pseudosubnexa S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Buellia extremoorientalis (Basionym: Hafellia extremorientalis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), and Sagedia nunatakkorum (Basionym: Lecanora nunatakkorum Poelt) are proposed. Data on conidiomata and conidia for lichenicolous fungus Opegrapha anomea Nyl are for the first time provided.
Authors:K. Inn, Zhichao Lin, Zhongyu Wu, C. McMahon, J. Filliben, P. Krey, M. Feiner, Chung-King Liu, R. Holloway, J. Harvey, I. Larsen, T. Beasley, C. Huh, S. Morton, D. McCurdy, P. Germain, J. Handl, M. Yamamoto, B. Warren, T. Bates, A. Holms, B. Harvey, D. Popplewell, M. Woods, S. Jerome, K. Odell, P. Young, and I. Croudace
In 1977, the Low-level Working Group of the International Committee on Radionuclide Metrology met in Boston, MA (USA) to define the characteristics of a new set of environmental radioactivity reference materials. These reference materials were to provide the radiochemist with the same analytical challenges faced when assaying environmental samples. It was decided that radionuclide bearing natural materials should be collected from sites where there had been sufficient time for natural processes to redistribute the various chemically different species of the radionuclides. Over the succeeding years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in cooperation with other highly experienced laboratories, certified and issued a number of these as low-level radioactivity Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for fission and activation product and actinide concentrations. The experience of certifying these SRMs has given NIST the opportunity to compare radioanalytical methods and learn of their limitations. NIST convened an international workshop in 1994 to define the natural-matrix radionuclide SRM needs for ocean studies. The highest priorities proposed at the workshop were for sediment, shellfish, seaweed, fish flesh and water matrix SRMs certified for mBq per sample concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239 Pu + 240 Pu. The most recent low-level environmental radionuclide SRM issued by NIST, Ocean Sediment (SRM 4357) has certified and uncertified values for the following 22 radionuclides: 40 K, 90 Sr, 129 I, 137 Cs, 155 Eu, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 212 Pb, 214 Bi, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 235 U, 237 Np, 238 U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu + 240 Pu, and 241 Am. The uncertainties for a number of the certified radionuclides are non-symmetrical and relatively large because of the non-normal distribution of reported values. NIST is continuing its efforts to provide the ocean studies community with additional natural matrix radionuclide SRMs. The freeze-dried shellfish flesh matrix has been prepared and recently sent to participating laboratories for analysis and we anticipate receiving radioanalytical results in 2000. The research and development work at NIST produce well characterized SRMs that provide the world's environment-studies community with an important foundation component for radionuclide metrology.