Authors:S. Landsberger, B. Buchholz, M. Kaminski, and M. Plewa
Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) significantly reduces volume and mass by as much as 80%, prolonging the life span of landfills. The concentration of heavy metals in the ash and their ability to leach into ground water is a serious concern when siting and designing MSWI ash landfills. Improved technology captures most heavy metals in the ash. The distribution of elements among the different ash particle sizes was determined by NAA. The bottom ash residue was separated into fractions ranging from 9.5 mm to 0.3 mm. The fly ash was separated into fractions from 250 m to 20 m. Landfills usually bury a mixture of both. The combined ash was separated into fractions over the entire range from >9.5 mm to <20 m. Thermal and epithermal neutron irradiations of size fractionated MSW bottom, fly and combined ash were performed to determine the distribution of various metals within the ash. Compared to normal soil, the ashes contained elevated amounts of numerous elements. Concentrations of the more enriched elements (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb, Se, Sr and Zn) in fly ash were of particular interest as source markers.
Authors:T. Pringle, S. Landsberger, W. Davidson, and R. Jervis
Instrumental photon and neutron activation techniques have been compared through the determination of sixteen major, minor and trace constituents in two British Columbian coals and a standard coal. Between the two techniques, the results generally agreed to within one standard deviation with replicate precision being maintained, for both techniques, below twenty percent at worst and down to five percent or better for several elements. Almost all of the elements having environmental, industrial or economic significance in fossil fuels can be determined with good sensitivity by either of these two methods, both of which share the advantages of being non-destructive and multi-element in nature and sufficiently accurate as demonstrated in this paper.
Authors:J. Graham, S. Landsberger, P. Ferreira, J. Ihlefeld, and G. Brennecka
In the field of radiation effects in materials, a detailed and precise description of the radiation environment used to damage
samples is often required to make sense of subsequent materials analysis. The types of reactions and extent of damage that
occur during irradiation strongly depend on the flux spectrum of the particular facility. Different neutron activation techniques
for characterizing neutron flux spectra were performed on the University of Texas at Austin TRIGA research reactor’s in-core
facilities. The results were compared in terms of spectral detail and precision. Activation of Au foils with multiple correction
factors, and multiple foil activation employing different deconvolution techniques comprise the methods tested.
Authors:Z. Lamari, S. Landsberger, J. Braisted, H. Neggache, and R. Larbi
Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure
the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol,
Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have
been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4·1012 n·cm−2·s−1 and 1.4·1011 n·cm−2·s−1, respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr,
Cu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and
Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NIST-botanical references
Authors:A. Plionis, D. Haas, S. Landsberger, and G. Brooks
Several methods for the electrodeposition of actinides for alpha-spectrometry analysis have been developed over the past few
decades, but none have been specifically designed to facilitate rapid analysis in a field situation. This paper describes
the development of an electrodeposition procedure that is specifically adapted for use in a mobile lab. Using these techniques
one would be able to obtain preliminary results in the event of a radiological incident. Quantitative yields with associated
uncertainties have been determined for the procedure. It has also been shown that short deposition times can provide quantitative
Authors:G. Nicholson, S. Landsberger, L. Welch, and R. Gritzo
The Compton suppression system (CSS) has been thoroughly characterized at the University of Texas’ Nuclear Engineering Teaching
Laboratory (NETL). Effects of dead-time, sample displacement from primary detector, and primary energy detector position relative
to the active shield detector have been measured and analyzed. Also, the applicability of Poisson counting statistics to Compton
suppression spectroscopy has been evaluated.
Authors:B. J. Vieira, S. Landsberger, and M. C. Freitas
We have employed Compton supression neutron activation analysis in conjunction with thermal and epithermal neutrons to detemine
trace elements in airborne particulate matter in Lisbon, Portugal. As a result of the proximity of ocean marine, elements
such as sodium and chlorine can signficantly decrease the analytical sensitivities of many elements of interest due ot the
high backgrounds arising from 38Cl and 24Na. Compton suppression has resulted in the increase of the analytical sensitivities using thermal neutrons of Al, Ba, Ce,
Cr, Cu, Ni, Rb, Se, Th, Ti, V, and Zn. The use of Compton suppression and epithermal neutrons significantly reduced the detection
limits for As, I, K, Si, and W, while the utilization of solely epithermal neutrons improved the analyses of In.
Authors:S. Landsberger, S. R. Biegalski, D. J. O’Kelly, and M. S. Basunia
In the last decade Compton suppressed neutron activation analysis has had increasing popularity as a powerful method to significantly lower backgrounds and reduce overlapping peaks caused by spectral or nuclear interferences. We give a detailed descriptive evaluation of the unique features of this technique and its usefulness in many areas of research employing non-destructive neutron activation analysis.
Authors:S. Landsberger, A. Simsons, J. Kramer, J. Drake, S. Vermette, B. Shuter, and P. Ihssen
Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been successfully employed in three distrinct acid precipitation studies. These include the determination of ten (Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, I, Mg, Mn, Na and V) elements in urban rainfall, elevated aluminum concentrations in acidified lakes and major ions (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na) in small-mouth bass kept in controlled pH environments. Quality control was assured by analyzing two certified standard reference materials prepared by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS 1643a) and National Research Council of Canada (hepatopancreas TORT-1 marine biological tissue).
Authors:S. Landsberger, T. Tipping, O. Ezekoye, D. Tamalis, V. Lott, S. Alexander, and G. Ban
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) remains an excellent technique to introduce undergraduate students to nuclear science and
engineering coming from different academic areas. The NAA methods encompass an appreciation of basic reactor engineering concepts,
radiation safety, nuclear instrumentation and data analysis. At the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab at the University of
Texas at Austin we have continued to provide opportunities through outreach programs to Huston-Tillotson University in Austin
and Florida Memorial University in Miami Gardens, both Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Southwestern University
in Georgetown, Texas. Furthermore, in the past four years we have established a strong educational collaboration with the
École Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Caen (ENSICAEN), France. Undergraduate students at ENSICAEN are required to have
an internship outside of France. While many of the students stay in neighboring European countries others have chosen the
United States. The cornerstone of these programs is to secure a relationship with each institution through clear educational
and research objectives and goals.