The enthalpies of dilution
of aqueous solutions for pyridine and methylpyridine isomers have been determined
with a 2277-Thermal Activity Monitor at 298.15 K. The results have been treated
using the excess function concept and homotactic interaction coefficients
have been obtained. The homotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients
are discussed qualitatively in terms of substitution effects of methyl group
introduced into the pyridine ring.
Authors:N. Li, Z. Yu, L. Wang, Y. Zheng, J. Jia, Q. Wang, M. Zhu, X. Liu, X. Xia, and W. Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on the learning and memory ability and expression of tau protein phosphorylation (P-tau) and beta amyloid protein (Aβ) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% groups. On the 21
of postnatal day, the learning and memory ability of the mouse pups was tested by Water Maze test and the Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of the offspring were also determined. The expression of P-tau and Aβ in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (
< 0.05). In Water Maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of the control group (
< 0.05). The expression of P-tau and Aβ was increased in Pb exposed groups than that of the control group (
< 0.05). Tau hyper-phosphorylation and Aβ increase in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory associated with maternal Pb exposure.
Authors:X.L. Jiang, G.F. Chen, X.J. Li, G. Li, Z.G. Ru, and J.C. Tian
This study aimed to clarify the genetic mechanisms behind wheat flour color. Flour colorrelated traits (L*, a*, and b*) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity are important parameters that influence the end-use quality of wheat. Dissecting the genetic bases and exploring important chromosomal loci of these traits are extremely important for improving wheat quality. The diverse panel of 205 elite wheat varieties (lines) was genotyped using a highdensity Illumina iSelect 90K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assay to disclose the genetic mechanism of flour color-related traits and PPO activity. In 2 different environments and their mean values (MV), 28, 30, 24, and 12 marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified for L*, a*, b* traits, and PPO activity, respectively. A single locus could explain from 5.52% to 20.01% of the phenotypic variation for all analyzed traits. Among them, 5 highly significant SNPs (P ≤ 0.0001), 11 stable SNPs (detected in all environments) and 25 multitrait MTAs were identified. Especially, BS00000020_51 showed pleiotropic effects on L*, a*, and b*, and was detected in all environments with the highest phenotypic contribution rates. Furthermore, this SNP was also found to be co-associated with wheat grain hardness, ash content, and pasting temperature of starch in previous studies. The identification of these significantly associated SNPs is helpful in revealing the genetic mechanisms of wheat colorrelated traits, and also provides a reference for follow-up molecular marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding.
Authors:X. J. Li, X. G. Hu, T. Z. Hu, G. Li, Z. G. Ru, L. L. Zhang, and Y. M. Lang
Thinopyrum ponticum is particularly a valuable source of genes for wheat improvement. A novel wheat-Th. ponticum addition line, 1–27, was identified using cytology, SSR, ESTSSR, EST-STS and PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) markers in this study. Cytological studies showed that 1–27 contained 44 chromosomes and formed 22 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis indicated that two chromosomes from Th. ponticum had been introduced into 1–27 and that these two chromosomes could form a bivalent in wheat background. Such results demonstrated that 1–27 was a disomic addition line with 42 wheat chromosomes and a pair of Th. ponticum chromosomes. One SSR marker (BARC235), one EST-STS marker (MAG3284) and 8 PLUG markers (TNAC1210, TNAC1787, TNAC1803, TNAC1805, TNAC1806, TNAC1821, TNAC1867 and TNAC1957), which were all from wheat chromosome group 7, produced the specific band in Th. ponticum and 1–27, indicating that the introduced Th. ponticum chromosomes belonging to the group 7 of wheat. Sequence analysis on specific bands from Th. ponticum and 1–27 amplified using the PLUG marker TNAC1867 further confirmed this result. The 1–27 addition line was also observed to be high resistant to powdery mildew though it is not clear if the resistance of 1–27 inherited from Th. ponticum. This study provided some useful information for effective exploitation of the source of genetic variability in wheat breeding.
Authors:F. Cui, J. Li, A. Ding, C. Zhao, X. Li, D. Feng, X. Wang, L. Wang, and H. Wang
To comprehensively understand the genetic basis of plant height (PH), quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for internode lengths, internode component indices and plant height component index (PHCI) were firstly conducted in the present study. Two related F8:9 recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations comprising 485 and 229 lines were used. Two hundred and nine putative additive QTL for the eight traits were identified, 35 of which showed significance in at least three trials. Of these, at least 11 pairwise QTL were common to the two populations. PH components at the QTL level had different effects on PH, confirming our previous multivariate conditional analysis (Cui et al. 2011). Eleven major QTL that showed consistency in expression across environments should be of great value in the genetic improvement of PH in wheat. The results above will enhance the understanding of the genetic basis of PH in wheat.
Authors:A. Ding, F. Cui, J. Li, C. Zhao, L. Wang, X. Qi, Y. Bao, X. Li, and H. Wang
Grain yield (GY) and yield components (YC) were investigated using two F8: 9 RILs, comprising 229 and 485 lines, respectively. A conditional analysis was conducted to generate conditional values for GY independent of each YC. Then both unconditional and conditional values were analyzed to map QTLs with additive effect. In both RILs, up to 23 unconditional and conditional QTLs were detected. However, only two QTLs were identified repeatedly among environments. All QTLs, except for 4 detected in unconditional mapping, were also identified as conditional QTLs, whereas a number of QTLs were additionally detected in conditional mapping. The number of QTLs detected that affected GY was different with respect to component-special influences. Our results revealed that the contributions of YC influencing QTL expression related to GY differed.
Authors:X.-C. Lv, Z.-C. Tan, Z.-A. Li, Y.-S. Li, J. Xing, Q. Shi, and L.-X. Sun
The (R)-BINOL-menthyl dicarbonates,
one of the most important compounds in catalytic asymmetric synthesis, was
synthesized by a convenient method. The molar heat capacities Cp,m
of the compound were measured over the temperature range from 80 to 378 K
with a small sample automated adiabatic calorimeter. Thermodynamic functions
[HT–H298.15] and [ST–S298.15] were derived in the
above temperature range with a temperature interval of 5 K. The thermal stability
of the substance was investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)
and a thermogravimetric (TG) technique.
Authors:Y. Zhang, X. An, X. Li, S. Chen, L. Gao, K. Wang, S. Wang, and Y. Yan
Two new y-type HMW-GSs in
with the mobility order of 1Dy12.2
>1Dy12, were identified by both SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Molecular cloning and sequencing showed that the genes encoding subunits 1Dy12.1*
had identical nucleotide acid sequences with 1,947 bp encoding a mature protein of 627 residues. Their deduced molecular weights were 67,347.6 Da, satisfactorily corresponding to that of 1Dy12.2
subunit determined by MALDI-TOF-MS (67,015.7 Da), but was significantly smaller than that of the the 1Dy12.1*
subunit (68,577.1 Da). Both subunits showed high similarities to 1Dy10, suggesting that they could have a positive effect on bread-making quality. Interestingly, the expressed protein of the cloned ORF from accessions TD87 and TD130 in
co-migrated with subunit 1Dy12.2
, but moved slightly faster than 1Dy12.1*
on SDS-PAGE. The expressed protein in transgenic tobacco seeds, however, had the same mobility as the 1Dy12.1*
subunit, as confirmed by both SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Although direct evidence of phosphoprotein could not be obtained by specific staining method, certain types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the 1Dy12.1*
subunit could not be excluded. We believe PTMs might be responsible for the molecular weight difference between the subunits 1Dy12.1*
Authors:Z. Chen, S. Wang, J. Tang, X. Li, C. Liu, X. Xu, and G. Cao
To provide a convenient and facile method to evaluate the radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 in quality control of routine clinical application, a simplified method of single-strip thin layer chromatography
(TLC) was developed and validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The RCP data of TLC correlated well with
Authors:Y. Duan, J. Li, X. Yang, X. Cao, L. Hu, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, and C. Wang
The thermal decomposition of strontium acetate hemihydrate has been studied by TG-DTA/DSC and TG coupled with Fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) under non-isothermal conditions in nitrogen gas from ambient temperature to 600°C. The TG-DTA/DSC
experiments indicate the decomposition goes mainly through two steps: the dehydration and the subsequent decomposition of
anhydrous strontium acetate into strontium carbonate. TG-FTIR analysis of the evolved products from the non-oxidative thermal
degradation indicates mainly the release of water, acetone and carbon dioxide. The model-free isoconversional methods are
employed to calculate the Ea of both steps at different conversion α from 0.1 to 0.9 with increment of 0.05. The relative constant apparent Ea values during dehydration (0.5<α<0.9) of strontium acetate hemihydrate and decomposition of anhydrous strontium acetate (0.5<α<0.9)
suggest that the simplex reactions involved in the corresponding thermal events. The most probable kinetic models during dehydration
and decomposition have been estimated by means of the master plots method.