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Abstract  

The enthalpies of dilution of aqueous solutions for pyridine and methylpyridine isomers have been determined with a 2277-Thermal Activity Monitor at 298.15 K. The results have been treated using the excess function concept and homotactic interaction coefficients have been obtained. The homotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients are discussed qualitatively in terms of substitution effects of methyl group introduced into the pyridine ring.

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Abstract  

Thermal analysis of phenylethynyl end-capped imide oligomer AFR-PEPA-4 was performed to characterize cure reaction, thermal stabilities and semicrystalline behavior of AFR-PEPA-4 oligomer and its cured polyimide. Cured AFR-PEPA-4 polyimide showed high T gs up to 418C. Both AFR-PEPA-4 oligomer and polyimide exhibit excellent thermal stabilities comparable to PETI-5 polyimides. AFR-PEPA-4 imide oligomer has a T m of 330C and exhibits spherulite crystalline morphology in the film. The crystallinity in AFR-PEPA-4 films could not be regenerated under any annealing conditions after the initial melt.

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Different components of biodiversity may vary differently since species diversity was considered to be determined by resource availability but functional diversity was related to partitioning of niche space. Moreover, the harsh or benign conditions may result in different niche space partitioning by the coexisting species. For example, in harsh environments niche differentiation may be stronger resulting in higher functional diversity. In this study, we investigate species diversity and functional diversity along a south-to north-facing slope gradient with different resource availability in a sub-alpine meadow. Our results indicate that the patterns of species diversity and functional diversity are not consistent along this gradient. Both species richness and Shannon index of diversity increased, but functional diversity slightly decreased or changed a little from south-to north-facing slope. Moreover, these two components formed a quadratic relationship. Soil water content (SWC) was the limiting resource along this gradient. On one hand, it determined the species diversity; on the other hand, it also influenced functional diversity via affecting niche differentiation and species trait pool. In conclusion, functional diversity was determined by both species richness and niche differentiation with the influence of soil water content.

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A rapid and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-multi-stage/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MRM-MS/MS) method has been developed for simultaneous quantification of salvianolic acid B and tanshinone IIA of salvia tropolone tablets in dog plasma. This was achieved by performing quantification using the MRM acquisition with two channels of MRM-MS/MS and MS full scan for more accuracy qualitative results, and the fragmentation transitions of m/z 295→249, 191 for tanshinone IIA and m/z 297→279, 251 for IS in positive mode, m/z 717→519, 321 for salvianolic acid B and m/z 295→267, 239 for IS in negative mode were selected. The UPLC separation was achieved within 3 min in a single UPLC run. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration range of 10 pg/mL−1 ng/mL for tanshinone IIA and 100 pg/mL−1 for salvianolic acid B. Lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 10 pg/mL and 100 pg/mL for tanshinone IIA and salvianolic acid B, respectively. The inter-day and intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) in all samples were less than 8.21%, and the recoveries were over 85.9% for both tanshinone IIA and salvianolic acid B. The two channels of MRM with MS full scan approach could provide both qualitative and quantitative results without the need for repetitive analyses and resulted in the reduction of further confirmation experiments and analytical time. The pharmacokinetic study of the two active components of salvia tropolone tablets following oral gavage administration of dogs was thus explored with this method.

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Three wheat varieties of Atlas66 (Al-tolerant genotype), EM12 (a major elite cultivar in China) and Scout66 (Al-sensitive genotype) were used to investigate their potential mechanisms of Al toxicity. Al concentrations of 50, 75, 100 μmol l −1 were used and the inhibition on root elongation between Scout66 and EM12 is significantly higher than that of Al-tolerant Atlas66, which is negative correlated to the Al absorption in root apices. Organic acids secretion was checked 24 h after Al stress and only malate was detected in Atlas66, but none of the organic acids were detected in the others, suggesting that secretion of malate in root is a major mechanism of Al resistance in Al-tolerant wheat genotype. The root cell ultrastructure showed less damage in Atlas66 than that in Scout66 and EM12 under Al stress by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. Tissue culture was carried out and the callus induction frequencies were all decreased on the media containing Al. The decrease of callus induction frequencies was less in Atlas66 than that in the others. It is concluded that Al damages the cell ultrastructure, resulting in the inhibition of acids secretion and cell division, which implies that the damage of cell ultrastructure is probably the key factor in Al inhibition of root growth.

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Abstract  

A dual cell system was used to study the electrogenerative leaching sphalerite-MnO2 under the conditions of presence and absence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans). The polarization of anode and cathode, and the relationship between the electric quantity (Q) and some factors, such as the dissolved Zn2+, Fe2+, the time in the bio-electro-generating simultaneous leaching (BEGSL) and electro-generating simultaneous leaching (EGSL), were studied. The results show that the dissolved Zn2+ in the presence of A. ferrooxidans is nearly 60% higher than that in the absence of A. ferrooxidans; the electrogenerative quantity in the former is about 134% more than that in the latter. A three-electrode system was applied to study anodic and cathodic self-corrosion current, which was inappreciable compared with the galvanic current between sphalerite and MnO2. The accumulated sulfur on the surface of sulfides produced in the electrogenerative leaching process could be oxidized in the presence of A. ferrooxidans, and the ratio of biological electric quantity reached to 31.72% in 72 h.

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Abstract  

Nuclear microprobe was used to measure single aerosol particles (SAPs) indoors from Shanghai. Every particle is characterized with its micro-PIXE spectrum, which can be considered as the fingerprint of the SAPs. The pattern recognition technique (PR) was applied to trace the SAPs back to their source. Results of five monitor homes at different locations in Shanghai show that most of the measured indoor aerosol particles are derived from soil dust, cement dust, vehicle exhaust, coal boilers and steel mill dust.

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Abstract  

External-beam PIXE was used for the non-destructive analysis of early glasses unearthed from the tombs of Warring States (475–221BC) and Han Dynasty (BC 206–AD 220) in south China. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO—BaO—SiO2 system and K2O—SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had exactly the same recipe. The source of the K2O flux and the correlation between PbO and BaO are discussed. Some archeological information is revealed.

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