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Separation and analysis of water-soluble proteins (WSP) are important in understanding wheat grain proteome fundamentals. However, due to their high degree of heterogeneity and complexity in the compositions, separating WSP is generally difficult and relevant methodologies are not efficiently developed yet. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is one of the analytical methods currently used for protein separation and characterization. In the present study, a CE method is established for rapidly separating and characterizing WSP of wheat grains. The established method was tested in various applications including wheat variety and germplasm identification as well as protein synthesis and accumulation studies during different grain development stages subject to genotypic and environmental variations. As results, the characteristic CE patterns of a range of bread wheat cultivars and related species were readily identified. The synthesis and accumulation patterns of wheat WSP during developing grains as well as their stabilities in different environments were also investigated. The technical advancements present in this article appear to be useful for wheat cultivar and germplasm identification as well as genetics and breeding research.

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Effects of fullerenes including FS, EFS and pure C60 on thermal behaviors of polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been studied by employing thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and off-line furnace-type pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The products were collected by Cambridge filter pad which was widely used in analyzing the combustion products of cigarette. The results showed that the addition of fullerenes obviously restrained the thermal decomposition of PEG. The initial decomposition temperatures (IDT) and maximum decomposition peak temperatures (MDT) were evidently postponed by the addition of fullerenes. Pyrolysis products with one or two hydroxyl end groups obviously increased with the addition of 10% C60. The reasons of the changes were discussed from the aspects of reaction mechanisms.

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A method was developed for the preparative separation of two alkaloids from the crude extract of the radix of Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. in a single run. The two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (5:5:2:8, v/v), where triethylamine (40 mmol/L) was added to the upper organic phase as the stationary phase and hydrochloric acid (10 mmol/L) was added to the lower aqueous phase as the mobile phase, was selected for this separation by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography (PZRCCC). For the preparative separation, the apparatus was rotated at a speed 850 rpm, while the mobile phase was pumped into the column at 2 mL/min. As a result, 112 mg of reserpine and 21 mg of yohimbine were obtained from 3 g of crude extract in a single run. The analysis of the isolated compounds was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 230 nm with purities of over 91.0%, and the chemical identification was carried out by the data of electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The technique introduced in this paper is an efficient method for preparative separation of reserpine and yohimbine from devil pepper radix. It will be beneficial to utilize medicinal materials and also useful for the separation, purification, and pharmacological study of Chinese herbal ingredients.

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The effects of fullerenes, including fellerene soot (FS), extracted fullerene soot (EFS) and pure C60 on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) compared with traditional carbon black (CB) catalyst has been studied by employing thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and ignition temperature experiments. The results showed that the addition of CB and FS to AP reduced the activation energy as well as the temperature at maximum decomposition rate, but that of EFS and pure C60 had little effect on the thermal decomposition of AP, and among all catalysts, FS was the best one.

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The aim of this study was to investigate postprandial effects of two Chinese liquors on s elected cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans. Sixteen healthy men were randomized into three groups in a three-way crossover study: tea-flavor liquor (TFL), traditional Chinese liquor (TCL) and water control (WC). Every subject consumed 60 mL of either liquor (45% (v/v) ethanol) or water together with a high-fat meal, respectively. Compared with baseline, serum uric acid was significantly increased in TFL group (0.5-hour: P = 0.012; 1-hour: P = 0.001; 2-hour: P = 0.008) and it was significantly decreased in WC group (1-hour: P = 0.001; 2-hour: P = 0.001; 4-hour: P < 0.001), while uric acid was non-significantly increased in the TCL group. High-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was significantly increased in the TCL (P = 0.014) and WC (P = 0.008) groups at postprandial 4 hours compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between groups during the postprandial period for these two parameters or other biochemical parameters. In conclusion, both liquors increased postprandial uric acid, and no significant difference was observed for the effects of TFL and TCL on the measured biochemical parameters.

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Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective strategy for rapid determination of functional genes in wheat plants. ERECTA genes are reported to regulate stomatal pattern of plants, and manipulation of TaERECTA (a homologue of ERECTA in bread wheat) is a potential route for investigating stomatal development. Here, the leucine-rich repeat domains (LRRs) and transmembrane domains of TaERECTA were selected to gain BSMV:ER-LR and BSMV:ER-TM constructs, respectively, targeting TaERECTA for silencing in wheat cultivars ‘Bobwhite’ and ‘Cadenza’, to identify the function of TaERECTA on stomatal patterns. The results showed that reduced expression of TaERECTA caused an increased stomatal and epidermal cell density by average 13.5% and 3.3%, respectively, due to the significantly reduced size of leaf epidermal and stomatal cells, and this led to an increase in stomatal conductance. These suggest that modulation of TaERECTA offers further opportunities in stomatal engineering for the adaptation of photosynthesis in wheat.

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A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 302 lines derived from a cross of Weimai 8 × Luohan 2 was used to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for plant height (PH) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Possible genetic relationships between PH and PH components (PHC), including spike length (SL) and internode length from the first to the fourth node counted from the top, abbreviated as FIITL, SITL, TITL and FOITL, respectively, were evaluated at the QTL level. A QTL for PH was mapped using data on PH and on PH conditioned by PHC using the IciMapping V3.0 software. Conditional QTL mapping proved that, at the QTL level, SL contributed the least to PH, followed by FIITL and FOITL, while TITL had the strongest influence on PH, followed by SITL. These results indicate that the conditional QTL mapping method can be used to evaluate possible genetic relationships between PH and PHC, and that it can efficiently and precisely reveal counteracting QTL, which will enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of PH in wheat.

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Starch is a product of photosynthetic activities in leaves. Wheat yields largely depend on photosynthetic carbon fixation and carbohydrate metabolism in flag leaves. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with flag leaf starch content (FLSC) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was completed using unconditional and conditional QTL analyses. The FLSC of this population during the early grain-filling stage was measured at six stages in six environments. Combining unconditional and conditional QTL mapping methods, eight unconditional QTLs and nine conditional QTLs were detected, with five QTLs identified as unconditional and conditional QTLs. Four unconditional QTLs (i.e. qFLS-1B, qFLS-1D-1, qFLS-4A, and qFLS-7D-1) and one conditional QTL (i.e. qFLS-3A-1) were identified in two of six environments. Two QTLs (qFLS-1D-2 and qFLS-7D-1), which significantly affected the FLSC, were identified using the unconditional QTL mapping method, while three QTLs (i.e. qFLS-1A, qFLS-3A-1, and qFLS-7D-1) were detected using the conditional QTL mapping method. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic mechanism and regulatory network underlying the diurnal FLSC in wheat.

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Leaf senescence is a notably important trait that limits the yield and biomass accumulation of agronomic crops. Therefore, determining the chromosomal position of the expression sequence tags (ESTs) that are associated with leaf senescence is notably interesting in the manipulation of leaf senescence for crop improvement. A total of 32 ESTs that were previously identified during the delaying leaf senescence stage in the stay-green wheat cultivar CN17 were mapped to 42 chromosomes, a chloroplast, a mitochondrion, and a ribosome using in silico mapping. Then, we developed 19 pairs of primers based on these sequences and used them to determine the polymorphisms between the stay-green cultivars (CN12, CN17, and CN18) and the control cultivar MY11. Among the 19 pairs of primers, 5 pairs produced polymorphisms between the stay-green cultivar and the non-stay-green control. Further studies of Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomics show that JK738991 is mapped to 3B, JK738983 is mapped to 5D, and JK738989 is mapped to 2A, 4A, and 3D. The other two ESTs, JK738994 and JK739003, were not assigned to a chromosome using the Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomics, which indicates that these ESTs may be derived from rye DNA in the wide cross. In particular, the ESTs that produce polymorphisms are notably useful in identifying the stay-green cultivar using molecular marker-assisted selection. The results also suggest that the in silico mapping data, even from a comparison genomic analysis based on the homogeneous comparison, are useful at some points, but the data were not always reliable, which requires further investigation using experimental methods.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm was used as mono- and mixed-cultures with Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii NCYC500 in mango wine fermentation. A ratio of 1:1000 (Saccharomyces:Williopsis) was chosen for mixed-culture fermentation to enable longer persistence of the latter. The monoculture of S. cerevisiae and mixed-culture was able to ferment to dryness with 7.0% and 7.7% ethanol, respectively. The monoculture of W. mrakii produced 1.45% ethanol. The mango wines fermented by S. cerevisiae alone and the mixed-culture were more yeasty and winey, which reflected their higher amounts of fusel alcohols, ethyl esters and medium-chain fatty acids. The mango wine fermented by W. mrakii alone was much less alcoholic, but fruitier, sweeter, which corresponded to its higher levels of acetate esters.

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