The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between corticosterone, body weight, insulin and androstenedione in order to understand the role of adrenal in contributing hyperandrogenism during delayed ovulation in S. heathi. The circulating corticosterone concentration in female S. heathi showed significant seasonal variation. The peak corticosterone concentration observed during August-September coincides with increased feeding activities in S. heathi. The present study noted a seasonal variation in relationship of corticosterone with insulin and androstenedione in S. heathi. An inverse relationship of corticosterone with insulin and androstenedione was found during August to December, but not during January to May. A seasonal variation in the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on adrenal corticosterone production invitro was observed during reproductive cycle. Corticosterone production in vitro by adrenal declined significantly as compared to the control during quiescence in September. The finding suggests that adrenal attained the peak responsiveness to ACTH during September. ACTH significantly enhanced the androstenedione production by the adrenal in vitro during December, when the circulating androstenedione was also high in S. heathi. This suggests that the adrenal may also contribute to hyperandrogenism during the period of delayed ovulation in S. heathi. Further studies are required to reveal the unique pattern of seasonal relationship between corticosterone, insulin and androstenedione in S. heathi.
Authors:U. Singh, A. Krishna, and Kunwar Bhatnagar
Detailed reproductive pattern and associated endocrine characteristics have been documented in only a few species of order Chiroptera. The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in body weight, serum insulin, leptin, androstenedione and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations during annual ovarian cycle in the sheath-tailed bat,
. Bats were sampled over three years. Leptin, a satiety hormone produced primarily by adipose tissue, provides information to feeding center of the brain about nutritional status, fat mass, appetite and energy expenditure. The circulating concentration of leptin begins to increase from October and attains a peak in December. The peak serum leptin concentration coincides with body weight in November before winter dormancy in December. The serum leptin levels dissociate from body weight during December. The other peaks of serum leptin levels coincide with late stages of the two successive pregnancies. The serum insulin concentration begins to increase from September and attains a peak during December. The insulin concentration remains low from January to August. The circulating androstenedione concentration begins to increase in October, reaching a peak in December. This increase in androstenedione concentration correlated with the period of heavy accumulation of abdominal fat and increase in body weight. There was a sharp decline in androstenedione concentration and body weight in January. The serum LH shows peaks, in November, coinciding with the peaked body weight, the other peaks in January and May, coinciding with ovulation for the two successive pregnancies. The high leptin and insulin levels might be responsible for the maintenance of reproductive response and gonadal function during adverse environmental condition in the winter, while high androstenedione, and associated body weight along with LH might be responsible for maintaining basal gonadal function. We conclude that high leptin, androstenedione and insulin serve, as signal for the reproductive functions in that sufficient body fat are available to meet the caloric demands and maintain normal function during adverse winter conditions.
Authors:U. P. Singh, A. Krishna, and Kunwar P. Bhatnagar
The present study was designed to investigate changes in thyroid activity during the reproductive cycle in Taphozous longimanus. Thyroid gland showed marked seasonal variation in weight and secretory activity. It was inactive in quiescence and early to mid-winter dormancy and active during recrudescence and breeding period during late winter dormancy. The serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations showed significant variation and closely coincided with thyroid activity. The T3 and T4 concentrations were higher in recrudescence, late winter dormancy and minimum in quiescence and initial stages of first pregnancy. The body weight (r = 0.56), ovary weight (r = 0.73), and thyroid weight (r = 0.70) showed correlation with each other and with T3 and T4 concentrations. The correlation between body weight, thyroid weight and T3 and T4 concentrations in non-pregnant bats was higher when compared with pregnant bats. The T3 and T4 levels remained low during the initial stages of development in first pregnancy when compared with the initial stages of second pregnancy. The scant food supply and low levels of T3 and T4 and low temperature during initial stages of first pregnancy might be responsible for differential rate of fetal development in two successive pregnancies in T. longimanus.
Authors:V. Mladenov, B. Banjac, A. Krishna, and M. Milošević
Quality of wheat grain is a complex trait that depends mostly on the quantity and quality of protein and unified interactions between high molecular glutenin, gliadin, low molecular glutenins and abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype × environment interaction on quality and some agronomic traits in wheat. Twenty divergent genotypes of winter wheat, per five from Serbia, Russia, France and Hungary were analysed in this paper. Variability was observed for quality (grain protein content and sedimentation) and agronomic traits (thousand-grain weight and test weight) in three growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10). Genotypes were statistically analysed [basic statistical parameters, AMMI biplot for the content of protein, correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)] in order to assess the impact of different growing seasons on selected cultivars. AMMI analysis determined that 2008/09 was very significant for most of the genotypes. The Hungarian cultivar GK-Zugoly had the highest grain protein content (14.4%). Correlation analysis showed different relationships between the traits. PCA indicated that the total variation reflected the first two components represented with 80%, but the first principal component was more important. Results of this paper indicate that the varieties MV-Csardas and Pamyati Kalinenko can be used as a good source of genetic material for future breeding program for agro-ecological conditions of Vojvodina.
Authors:D. Ladhalakshmi, M. Ramiah, T. Ganapathy, M. Krishna Reddy, S. E. Khabbaz, S. Karunakaran, and A. Kamalakannan
A new necrosis viral disease was observed in blackgram, showed brown necrotic rings along with veinal and stem necrosis. The virus was mechanically inoculated on the local lesion host, cowpea cv. 152 and maintained in the local lesion host throughout the study. Yield studies under pot culture experiment showed 10- to 30-day-old plants were highly susceptible and the yield became almost nil. By using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and indirect Direct Antigen Coated-Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (DAC-ELISA) studies the virus was identified as Tobacco streak virus (TSV). The ultraviolet absorbance of the purified virus was measured and the ratio of A260/A280 was determined as 1.41. Polyclonal antiserum was raised against blackgram necrosis virus in New Zealand white rabbit and the titre value was determined as 1: 200. Direct antigen coating-ELISA was used to detect the virus concentration in various plant parts and stem portion recorded maximum virus concentration. TSV in blackgram was not transmitted through seeds.