The publications by the Spanish scientists recorded in eight international databases in the years 1978 and 1983 are retrieved. Science indicators able to give a perception of the scientific productivity, the institutions involved, the habits of publishing in foreign or domestic journals and co-authorship are presented. The changes observed in these indicators in the two analysed years are examined and the trend in the evolution of the Spanish science is shown. The time delay in recording items by the databases and coverage of the Spanish journals are also studied.
Bisphenol-A polycarbonate (BAPC) was crystallised by exposure to acetone vapours for a period of 9 h; it developed a 20% crystallinity
according to WAXS measurements. The samples of semi-crystalline BAPC were then submitted to a series of thermal treatments
including annealing, self-nucleation and subsequent isothermal crystallizations. The results showed that the polymer possesses
a remarkable crystalline memory and a much faster recrystallization and reorganization capacity (lamellar thickening) than
its very low thermal crystallization rate. This peculiar crystallization behaviour probably stems from its rigid backbone
The main objective of the present study is to study the behaviour of sewage sludge and biochar from sewage sludge pyrolysis after addition to soil in a context of a temperate agricultural soil. For this, an incubation experiment was designed during 200 days. Carbon mineralization of soil amended with sewage sludge and biochar at two different rates (4 and 8 wt%) was evaluated. Differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry and the first derivate of the TG were performed in oxidizing conditions on soil samples before and after incubation. Biochar obtained from sewage sludge pyrolysis at 500 °C was more stable in soil than original sewage sludge. After incubation experiment, the reduction of soil organic matter content was significantly lower in soil amended with biochar than in soil amended with sewage sludge. The thermostability index WL3/WL2 decreases after incubation in soil amended with biochar, however it increases in case of soil treated with sewage sludge.
Authors:A. Méndez, I. Gómez, M. Fernández, and G. Aguado
This study is an analysis of six years of Spanish bibliography retrieved from INSPEC and COMPENDEX. The quantitative evolution of the scientific activity by years and Institutions, the recent tendencies to publish in foreign journals, as well as to have the papers signed by more authors are followed. The most frequently used journals are ranked according to their impact factor and subject. Some hypothesis are formulated and tested, trying to find a relationship between the growth of the Spanish scientific activity and its quality.
Authors:A. Méndez, S. Barriga, F. Guerrero, and G. Gascó
This study deals with thermal analysis of growing media obtained from mixtures of paper will waste materials (one de-inking paper sludge, HP, and one reject from paper mill producing paper from virgin wood, RT) with sewage sludge. For the growing media formulation, one sewage sludge (L) was mixed with both paper mill waste materials at 10, 20, and 30% in volume. An incubation experiment was designed in order to study their carbon mineralization. Addition of sewage sludge significantly increases the carbon mineralization of growing media based on RT. In case of HP, carbon mineralization increases after addition of sewage sludge in 30% (HP + 30L treatment). Thermogravimetric analysis (TG and DTG) of growing media was performed before and after incubation experiment in order to study the organic matter transformation. The higher the carbon mineralization, the greater the difference between TG curves of samples before and after the incubation. The WL3/WL2 ratio increases after incubation of samples as a result of organic matter stabilisation. For HP growing media, the highest value corresponds to HP + 30L whereas HP + 20L, and HP + 10L show similar values. In case of RT, the WL3/WL2 index shows a progressive increase with sewage sludge content.
Authors:J. Mano, S. Lanceros-Méndez, A. Nunes, and M. Dionísio
Dielectric experiments are often performed in non-isothermal conditions. Thus, there is a difference between the temperature of the sample and the sensor temperature. In this work we propose and compare three temperature calibration methods based on the detection of transitions or relaxations: i) the melting of high-purity metallic standards (indium and tin), ii) the 2nd order phase transition of a ferroelectric crystal (TGS); iii) the -relaxation of an amorphous polymer (poly(carbonate)). The results obtained from the three different methods were used to construct a calibration curve for a given heating rate.
Authors:M.I. Piñon, A.D. Alarcon-Rojo, A.L. Renteria, G. Mendez, and H. Janacua-Vidales
Marinated chicken meat is an ideal substrate for the growth of microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-intensity ultrasound on the microbial flora of chicken meat marinated in oregano oil. Three concentrations of oregano oil (0%, 0.1%, and 0.3%) and two types of marination (traditional and highintensity ultrasound) were tested. Microorganisms were enumerated immediately after marination and on 7, 14, and 21 days of chilled storage. Marination in oregano oil resulted in significant differences (P<0.05) in the numbers of anaerobic, lactic acid bacteria, and mesophiles. Ultrasound with 0.1% OEO did not show any effect on the three types of bacteria. The treatment with 0.3% oregano oil and ultrasound had the greatest effect on controlling microbial growth. Therefore, a combination of ultrasound and oregano oil is the most appropriate option for reducing the growth of mesophilic, anaerobic, and lactic acid bacteria in vacuum-packed marinated chicken breasts during chilled storage.
Authors:F. Fraga, V. Soto, J. Blanco-Méndez, A. Luzardo-Alvarez, E. Rodríguez-Núñez, J. Martínez-Ageitos, and M. Pérez
Knowledge of the the kinetic study of chitosan/genipin
allow to know the different effects that time and temperature have on the
cure reaction of the material.
The total enthalpy of reaction,
the glass transition temperature and the partial enthalpies have been determined
using DSC in dynamic mode. Two models, one based on chemical kinetics and
the other accounting for diffusion were used. The incorporation of the diffusion
factor in the second model allowed for the cure kinetics to be predicted the
whole range of conversion.
Authors:Carla Sayago, Vanessa Camargo, F. Barbosa, Cláudia Gularte, Geovana Pereira, Silvia Miotto, V. Cechinel Filho, R. Luiz Puntel, V. Folmer, and A. Mendez
Bauhinia species are known to have hypoglycemiant and antioxidant activities. Here, hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts from Bauhinia forficata subsp. pruinosa and Bauhinia variegata, collected in a Pampa biome region of Brazil, were investigated to characterize their chromatographic profile, flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activity (TBARS and DPH assays). The extracts were obtained from dried and fresh leaves. The total flavonoid content was assessed by spectrophotometric determination, and the results ranged between 572.08 and 1,102.99 μg mL−1. Moreover, flavonoids were more predominant in B. variegata than in B. forficata subsp. pruinosa. HPLC analysis detected a complex profile of phenolic compounds, being the flavonoid kaempferitrin founded B. forficata subsp. pruinosa; in addition, other kaempferol and quercetin derivatives were present. In vitro antioxidant assays demonstrated a different behavior depending on the species, leaf treatment and extract concentration. In general, B. variegata extracts obtained from fresh material presented higher antioxidant potential, which can be attributed to the predominance of flavonoids in their chemical composition.