Utilization of algae includes both macroalgae for human consumption dating back to thousands of years, as well as the application of microalgae in health promoting dietary supplements. The autotrophic growth of microalgae is slow, but can be accelerated by optimizing their cultivation conditions. Efficiency optimizations for time and economy should be performed in many parallel experiments. A new high-throughput microalgae cultivation method is presented here, applying 24-low-well microplate with varying illumination, in which the cell growth is followed via evaluation of scanned images. A strain of the genus Nannochloropsis and two Chlorella vulgaris species have been chosen as well described and frequently applied model organisms in order to test the recently developed cultivation system. In these scaled down experiments, the custom design lighting panel was tested by studying the effect of the colour of illumination on cell growth kinetics. RGB LEDs (i.e. light emitting diodes, red: 622 nm, green: 528 nm, and blue: 467 nm) were used individually or together providing red, green, blue, and white colours. While the effect of light’s colour on algae growth was evaluated, also the new system was proven to be suitable for comparing maximal growth rates for different microalgae strains. While the tested two Chlorella isolates reached 1.2–1.4 g l–1 concentrations, the Nannochloropsis strain reached 1.4 g l–1 final cell dry weight, and specific growth rates were observed between 0.58–0.62 day–1.
In Hungary rice (
L.) is cultivated under flooded conditions. Direct seeding into the soil is applied usually. The optimal sowing date is a key factor necessary to the success of this annual crop because of the relatively short growing season. The main objective of this research was to: (1) analyse duration of period from sowing to emergence at different temperature values, (2) determine base temperature of this phenophase and (3) establish a thermal time model for rice emergence. To do this, growth chamber experiments with 5 Hungarian cultivars were conducted to determine the time to median emergence (E
) at constant temperature of 14 to 34 °C in 2 °C steps. The sowing depth was 2 cm, and moisture was not a limiting factor. It was found that the critical thermal zone, which is of highest practical importance, is between 14 and 16 °C. At these values the E
is 23.9 and 13.4 days, respectively, showing a border between unfavourable and acceptable conditions. In the temperature interval between 26 and 34 °C the time needed for emergence was only 3.3 to 4.4 days. Variety differences were also detected. Base temperature was found between 9.8 and 10.9 °C. The thermal time requirements of 4 cultivars varied between 69 and 73 °C day. Data of field experiment with 9 sowing dates and a pot experiment with 3 sowings confirmed that our thermal time model can successfully simulate the emergence of rice.
Flour from grains originating from plants infected artificially with cereal aphids were analyzed for glutenin and gliadin and total protein content, using Size Exclusion HPLC. Wheat plants were caged at the beginning of stem elongation. Cages were treated with 0.1 % methyl parathion. One week later, the caged plants were artificially infected with 5 aptera individuals of
Metopolophium dirhodum, Diuraphis noxia, Sitobion avenae
. It was found that aphid infection had significant effect on the glutenin and gliadin content, the total protein content and the gliadin/glutenin ratio. Both the glutenin and gliadin content was significantly higher in the seeds harvested from aphid infected plants. However, the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in wheat flour prepared from aphid infected plants than in those from uninfected control. The most significant decrease in gliadin/glutenin ratio was caused by
M. dirhodum, D. noxia, S. avenae
infection followed by
at high-abundance. As the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in flours made from aphid infected wheat seeds, it may be suggested, that aphid feeding results in decreased bread making quality of wheat flour.
Winery wastewater treatment plants generally face severe nutrient deficiency, and therefore conventional technologies and supplementary nutrient dosing strategies may fail. The purpose of the paper is to show how traditional way of dosing N-source for marginal availability to nutrient deficient influents results in poorly settling activated sludge regardless of the application of aerated or non-aerated selectors. External N-source calculated for marginal availability resulted in nutrient deficiency due to the relatively high yield experienced (0.7 g biomass COD/g substrate COD). In the fully aerated system with overall N-deficiency, rapidly increasing overproduction of extracellular polysaccharide was experienced, leading to SVI (Sludge Volume Index) values up to 600 cm3 g−1. In the system with the non-aerated selector, initial nutrient deficiency could only be detected in the second reactor. Since neither overgrowth of floc-forming GAOs (Glycogen Accumulating Organisms) nor denitrification could be experienced, the non-aerated reactor operated as low-DO (Dissolved Oxygen) basin, attributing to the drastic overgrowth of filamentous bacteria leading to SVI values >1000 cm3 g−1. Since dosing external N-source for marginal availability is likely to cause severe biomass separability problems in activated sludge winery wastewater treatment, either pronounced N-overdosing and pre-denitrification or severe nutrient deficiency and GAO cultivation can rather be recommended.
Plant sucking aphids cause both
quantitative and qualitative yield losses in cereals; moreover
aphid-transmitted viruses are responsible for other quantitative and
qualitative damages, thus direct or indirect effects of aphid infection are in
focus of interest. Bread-making quality of wheat flour is determined primarily
by the protein content and composition, the gluten proteins (glutenins,
gliadins) being the prime factors. Allelic composition of the gliadin- and
glutenin loci as well as the absolute amount and/or the relative ratio of
gliadins to glutenins are very important in dough making and in determining
baking quality. Wheat plants were caged
at the beginning of stem elongation. Cages were treated with 0.1% methyl
parathion. One week later, the caged plants were artificially infected with 5
alata individuals of Metopolophium dirhodum, Diuraphis noxia, Sitobion avenae
and Rhopalosiphum padi. Flour from grains originating from plants infected
artificially with cereal aphids were analyzed for glutenin and gliadin and
total protein content, using Size Exclusion HPLC. It was found that aphid
infection had significant effect on the glutenin and gliadin content, the total
protein content and the gliadin/glutenin ratio. Both the glutenin and gliadin
content was significantly higher in the seeds harvested from aphid infected
plants. However, the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in wheat
flour prepared from aphid infected plants than in those from uninfected
control. The most significant decrease in gliadin/glutenin ratio was caused by
M. dirhodum, D. noxia, S. avenae infection followed by R. padi at
high-abundance and low-abundance, respectively. As the gliadin/glutenin ratio
was significantly lower in flours made from aphid infected wheat seeds, it may
be suggested that aphid feeding results in decreased bread making quality of
Two wheat-infecting isolates of WDV-WDV-B and WDV-F-
were collected in the field of Martonvásár and Nagykovácsi.
The complete genomes were amplified by PCR, cloned into pBKS+ plasmid and
sequenced. The nucleotide divergence in the total genome of the five isolates-WDV- Fra, WDV-Cz, WDV-Swe, WDV-B and WDV-F-originating from different part of Europe were found to be
0.44-1.69%. The four genes-
MP, CP, RepA and Rep-and two non-coding region-LIR and SIR-
were compared and a phylogenetic tree was constructed.
Benthic diatom investigations of some Hungarian streams have been carried out in order to find reference sites in assistance to the ecological quality analysis of the different river types according to the Hungarian river typology. On the basis of the coevaluation of biological and chemical parameters, among the investigated streams, some part of Kemence stream seems to be the appropriate reference site for the classification of the highland, siliceous rivers of Hungary. However, further invastigations are needed for the selection of reference sites for the other types of Hungarian river typology. This is the most difficult in the case of lowland rivers, which are exposed to more severe anthropogenic impacts. Important is the question which biological parameters should be investigated and considered when assessing the ecological condition of our waters. In the United States, e.g. the assessment of the relative abundance of Achnanthidium minutissimum is quite widespread (Stevenson and Bahls 1999), the extent of which indicates the level of disturbance. The use of this method is hampered, on one hand, by the fact that A. minutissimum is an early coloniser species which means that if we do not take samples from mature periphyton, we might find it dominant simply because of that, and, on the other hand, that distinguishing between the species varieties is not always unambiguous under light microscope because of its small size, and these can have different ecological needs. It is also recommended to calculate species richness, diversity and evenness (Stevenson and Bahls 1999), but based on our investigations these parameters are not in correlation with water quality. Investigation of other diatom features such as tolerance and sensitivity, some autecological parameters (as it was applied and recommended by Fore and Grafe 2002 for investigating the reaction of diatom associations to anthropogenic disturbances) might also be useful in completing the water quality analysis of rivers, however, these methods need further investigations. Some of the indices (EPI-D, IPS, IBD) calculated with the software Omnidia are suitable for the classification of our rivers, but the investigation of more rivers, flowing through different types of stone are necessary to choose the appropriate indices. The reason for this is that the different indices work with a different register of species and obviously those indices will prove to be suitable the species register of which shows the highest similarity to the diatom associations of the certain water type.
Authors:K. Kiss, Sz. Salamon, B. Törőcsik, and J. Szeberényi
The PC12 phaeochromocytoma cell line provides a useful model to study nerve growth factor-induced neuronal differentiation. The central signaling route of this process is mediated by the Ras-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade. However, Ras-independent pathways are also stimulated by nerve growth factor and may contribute to differentiation signaling. One mediator for Ras-independent signal transduction in PC12 cells is phospholipase C-g that generates the second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol-trisphosphate. To probe the possible involvement of this enzyme in nerve growth factor-promoted differentiation, we used the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the inositol-trisphosphate-receptor inhibitor Xestospongin C. Our results show that both chemicals block nerve growth factor-promoted neurite outgrowth, but the blockage of phospholipase C does not inhibit nerve growth factor-induced expression of c-fos, zif268 and transin genes. In addition, induction of these genes by nerve growth factor plus dibutyryl-cAMP is comparable in wild-type PC12 cells as well as in cells in which both Ras- and phospholipase C-g-mediated pathways are inhibited. The phospholipase C-g pathway thus belongs to those nerve growth factor receptor-originated signaling routes that contribute to the biological response of PC12 cells to nerve growth factor, but its gene activating potential does not have a major role in its neuritogenic effect.