Authors:F. Gao, J. Bao, J. Xue, J. Huang, W. Huang, S. Wu, and Li-Fan Zhang
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a medium-term simulated microgravity by tail-suspension (SUS) induces hypertrophic and atrophic changes in the common carotid artery and abdominal aorta with their innermost smooth muscle (SM) layers being most profoundly affected. The second purpose was to elucidate whether vascular local renin-angiotensin system (L-RAS) plays an important role in the differential remodeling of the two kinds of large arteries by examining the gene and protein expression of angiotensinogen (A
) and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and their localization in the vessel wall. The results showed that SUS induced an increase in the media thickness of the common carotid artery due to hypertrophy of the four SM layers and a decrease in the total cross-sectional area of the nine SM layers of the abdominal aorta without significant change in its media thickness. Irrespective of the nature of remodeling, the most prominent changes were in the innermost layers. Immunohistochemistry,
hybridization, Western blot, and real time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that SUS induced an up- and down-regulation in A
and AT1R expression in the common carotid artery and abdominal aorta, respectively. In conclusion, our findings have demonstrated some special features in the structural adaptation of large elastic arteries due to a medium-term simulated microgravity.
Authors:F. Ahmadabadi, M. Saghebjoo, M. Hedayati, R. Hoshyar, and C.-J. Huang
This study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and saffron aqueous extract (SAE) would provide a synergistic effect to improve tumor volume reduction and also modulate pro- and anti-apoptotic protein expression in tumor tissue of 4T1 breast cancer-bearing mice. Female mice following induction of breast cancer through injection of 4T1 cell lines were randomly divided into four groups: (1) HIIT, (2) SAE, (3) HIIT+ SAE, and (4) control. The tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIIT, SAE, and HIIT+SAE groups than in the controls. The protein level of caspase-3 in the HIIT and the SAE groups was higher than in the control and the HIIT+SAE groups. The Bax protein level in the SAE group was higher than in the control. The HIIT+SAE group showed a lower level of Bax than the HIIT and the SAE groups. The protein level of Bcl-2 was higher in the HIIT+SAE vs. both the HIIT and the SAE groups. Finally, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was significantly higher in the HIIT and the SAE groups than in the HIIT+SAE and control groups. These findings indicate that a combination of HIIT and SAE interventions does not improve the apoptotic induction in tumor tissue, while both HIIT and SAE treatments may mediate apoptotic pathway as evinced by the elevated ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3 levels during tumor progression in breast cancer-bearing mice.
Authors:Fereshteh Ahmadabadi, Hossein Nakhaei, Mehdi Mogharnasi, and Chun-Jung Huang
The perturbation of adipokinetic hormones, such as irisin, chemerin, and asprosin has been reported to participate in pathological conditions (e.g., insulin resistance) and chronic inflammation. However, exercise training has been long established as an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of these chronic and metabolic diseases. This study was to examine the effects of aerobic continuous training (ACT) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on irisin and chemerin levels of liver tissue (LT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), circulating asprosin, and their relationships with cardiometabolic risk factors in rats with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: normal control (N-Ctr), control (Ctr-MetS), ACT, and AIT. After familiarization, rats with exercise intervention performed either ACT or AIT five times a week over eight weeks. The level of irisin in both ACT and AIT groups was higher than the Ctr-MetS group in LT and VAT, with a greater improvement of LT level observed in AIT vs. ACT groups. Furthermore, the level of chemerin in LT and VAT was lower in both ACT and AIT groups than the Ctr-MetS group, whereas only AIT group exhibited a reduction of serum asprosin when compared to ACT and Ctr-MetS, along with the improvements of cardiometabolic markers, such as HOMA-IR and lipid profile. These findings may support the efficiency and effectiveness of AIT intervention in the modulation of these novel metabolic hormones and cardiometabolic risk factors for reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.