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The biologically active amines of grapes, aszú-grapes, aszú-wines of Tokaj region were analysed to study the effect of Botrytis cinerea on the grapes. It was established that grapes contained mainly spermidine, putrescine and spermine, however, in the aszú-grapes new amine compounds such as agmatine, phenethylamine, butylamine and pentylamine isomers appeared. The spermine content showed an increase in all aszú-grape varieties compared to the grapes. During winemaking processes, spermine disappeared and the concentration of tyramine increased in the aszú-wines. The concentration of spermidine decreased during the ageing of the product. The ratio of tyramine and amine content of the samples were found to be within a limited interval.

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Consumption of dietary supplements (DS) has been showing a persistent, rapidly growing tendency all over the world. A new branch has been created on the borderline of food and pharmaceutical industries. It is a general tendency that the policy and regulation towards the products of this branch are lagging far behind the practice. This is an especially important problem with adolescents. To work out an efficient regulatory framework, we have to have an adequate picture on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards these products. Based on literature analysis of two focus group interviews, we have developed a motivational model on usage of DS, which has been tasted during a direct-question survey involving more than 500 respondents. Our results have proven that the consumption of DS is proliferated among young recreational athletes. One quarter of them consumes proteins, one tenth L-carnitine at least 2–3 times a week. The most important motivational factor is the improvement of sport performance. The level of confidence in these products is considerably influenced by peers and trainers. The propensity to underestimate the potentially adverse consequences of these products is high.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Zs. Molnár, Sz. Bánvölgyi, Á. Kozák, I. Kiss, E. Békássy-Molnár, and Gy. Vatai

Concentration of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) juice by combination of membrane processes was investigated. The pre-treatment steps were crushing, enzyme treatment, pressing and clarification by microfiltration (MF). Ceramic tube MF membrane was used at low pressure and temperature (3.9 bar and 30 °C).Nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) process with flatsheet membranes was studied to pre-concentrate the clarified and sterilized raspberry juice. The NF experiments were carried out at different flow-rates (400 l h−1 and 600 l h−1). Any significant effect of flow-rate was not experienced. Both pre-concentration processes were used at low temperature (30 °C) for a mild concentration of raspberry juice. For further concentration osmotic distillation (OD) was applied. The initial total soluble solid content of the raspberry juice was 8–10 °Brix, the final concentrate of OD was 70–80 °Brix.The membrane-, fouling- and the polarization layer resistance were determined in case of micro-, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis.The soft drinks, made from RO and OD concentrates, were compared with well-known conventional raspberry juice from trade. During the sensory analysis (the colour, odour, flavour, acid taste and general impression was evaluated) our juices were preferred by customers.The antioxidant capacity, total phenol, anthocyanin and acid content, the total cell count and the number of yeasts and moulds were determined in the permeate and retentate samples of the different filtration steps.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Sz. Bánvölgyi, T. Vatai, Zs. Molnár, I. Kiss, Ž. Knez, Gy. Vatai, and M. Škerget

Two novel technologies were applied in order to investigate concentration and formulation of anthocyanins for potential use in food industry. Integrated membrane process technology was applied for concentrating elderberry juice. In the first step, the juice was clarified by microfiltration, followed by a pre-concentration step with reverse osmosis. Finally, the juice was concentrated to the end concentration of 56 °Brix by osmotic distillation. The elderberry juice concentrate was formulated in a powderous form by a high-pressure process — Particles from Gas Saturated Solution (PGSS™) — using supercritical CO2. The applied carrier material was palm fat. The products with different anthocyanin-carrier ratios were measured for their colour properties (lightness, hue angle, and saturation). Colour stability was monitored for prolonged storage at different conditions (light/dark and ambient temperature/ refrigerator). The obtained powderous anthocyanin-palm fat products showed good colour stability, which gives good bases for potential applications in the future.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: R. Kiss, G. Szita, M. Herpay, Gy. Csikó, J. Pászti, T. Mag, P. Kovács, G. Kovács, J. Szita, P. Tóth, I. Szatmári, and S. Bernáth

The authors investigated the possibility of the presence of VTEC strains in improperly pasteurized milk samples. A total of 64 Escherichia coli strains were isolated from 135 pasteurized milk samples originating from the same producer. The examined isolates contained 29 haemolysin-, 9 colicin- and 5 aerobactin-producing strains, but the investigations concerning heat-resistant and heat-sensitive toxins gave negative results.Six O128-type E. coli strains exerted a cytotoxic effect on the VERO cell line; 5 of them contained H12 antigen, while one could not be typed. Four of the 6 verocytotoxin-producing strains belonged in phage group 20, one in phage group (2)3(7), and one in phage group 4; four strains were of B3, one of A1, and one of A1(A2) phage type.Because of a technical failure the milk was pasteurized at 69 °C for 15 s, which is 2 °C less than required. The results underline the importance of the appropriate pasteurization temperature, as otherwise the milk may contain verocytotoxin-producing E. coli, which is a potentially great hazard for public health.

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