The notion of competitiveness figures nowadays frequently and centrally both in economic policy and in regional development. Current economic development programmes, in short, have been directly responsible for the increasing attention devoted to analyses of regional competitiveness. At the same time, there is a growing consensus that a single notion of competitiveness can be found to describe processes of the globalising economy for companies (microlevel), industrial sectors and regions (mesolevel) as well as for national economies (macrolevel). The standard (common) concept of competitiveness has been partly developed in order to serve as a widely accepted theoretical definition, which can be measured and also be used by economic development policies. Competitiveness is intimately bound up with successful economic development. This study reviews the conceptual background and some special aspects of competitiveness and also looks more closely at one of the basic models of enhancing regional competitiveness. First, some aspects of the standard notion of competitiveness are discussed. Then some key indicators of the competitiveness of Hungarian regions will be investigated. I shall end by introducing the so-called pyramid model, which has been designed to measure and improve regional competitiveness.