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Sensory neuropathy is common symptom of the diabetes mellitus and the prevalence of oral lesions is higher in diabetic patients. The distribution of substance P was studied immunohistochemically in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat's tongue. The morphological association of sensory nerves (substance P immunoreactive) with mast cells (nerve fibre-mast cell contact) was monitored. The substance P nerve fibre-mast cell contacts were very scanty in control tongue. The number of substance P nerve terminals and mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05) in diabetes mellitus after 4 weeks of the treatment compared with the control tongue. The number of mast cell-nerve contacts was even more significantly increased (p<0.001) in diabetes. The distance between nerve fibres and mast cells was about 1 mm and very often less than 200 nm. In some instances, the mast cells were degranulated in the vicinity to nerve fibres. Increased number of mast cell-nerve contacts in neurogenic inflammation might cause vasoconstriction and lesions of the oral mucosa, so some disorders such lichen planus, leukoplakia and cancer might frequently develop in diabetes mellitus.

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In this study molecular markers linked to the Ry sto gene, which originates from the wild potato species Solanum stoloniferum and confers extreme resistance against PVY, were identified and the applicability of recently published Ry sto markers was analyzed. Three RAPD markers covering a total distance of 8.60 cM were detected in this experiment. The closest of these markers was located 0.53 cM from the gene. From among the published markers only one had diagnostic value in the experimental plant material, and mapped 2.95 cM from the gene, on the side opposite the RAPD markers developed in the present study. All the markers analyzed were present in Solanum stoloniferum accessions, irrespective of their resistance, indicating that these sequences are linked to the locus and not exclusively to the dominant allele of the Ry sto gene in the wild species. The inapplicability of several published markers indicates that the genetic background is decisive in this tetraploid and highly heterozygous species. This means that it may be necessary to develop markers from the breeding material itself, until the resistance gene is not cloned and cannot be used as a selection marker in marker-assisted selection.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: E. Kiss, G. Kazinczi, J. Horváth, S. Kobza, T. Baranyi, M. Varga, B. Havasréti, and A. Fehér

Viruses caused severe yield losses of field cucumber in Hungary last years. Field surveys have been carried out on field cucumber to evaluate virus infection in the region of Gyor-Moson-Sopron county. Virus infection was determined on the basis of symptoms, biotest and with DAS-ELISA serological method for the presence of 15 viruses. The virus vector aphid flight was monitored by Moericke yellow water pan. On the basis of field surveys 100% virus infection has been observed in cucum­ber fields. Virus symptoms were various, depending on varieties, environ­men­tal factors, viruses and strains. Out of the viruses investigated only three [Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) (DTL serotype); Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic 2 potyvirus (WMV-2)] have been occurred on cucumber samples. Biological tests confirm­ed the results of DAS-ELISA. There was much difference, regarding the frequency of viruses. ZYMV was dominant in 1998, while CMV was dominant in 1999. The proportion of the complex infection was very high. Till now, besides CMV other viruses cannot be detected from weeds in cucumber ecosystems. The peak of aphid flight was in the middle of June and later a secondary peak was observed at the beginning of July, which coincided with the appearance of the first virus symptoms. Regarding, that cucumber production occurs in fields at the same place year by year, soil borne virus vectors may play important role in virus infection. To reduce virus infection we can suggest using of light summer oils, which prevents virus transmission by aphids. It is concluded that team work of virologists, pathologists, growers, technologists and the breeders is necessary to solve virus problems of field cucumber in Hungary.

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In in vitro studies it was detected that the juice from the choleretic black radish root had hydrogen donating and d-field element-chelating abilities. The juice exhibited strong reducing power property and radical scavenging effect in H2O2/∙OH luminol system.

With the help of short term animal experiment we examined the in vivo effect of Raphanus sativus root juice on hyperlipidemia in rats.

A chemiluminescent study was applied to determine the total scavenger activity (TSC) of erythrocytes and plasma of untreated and treated animals. We also determined the different liver enzyme activities: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and metabolite concentrations (cholesterol, triacylglycerols, total bilirubin, glucose) by spectrophotometry in the sera.

In our study, using experimental hyperlipidemic condition, it has been detected that black radish root juice could moderate the injurious effect of lipid rich diet in rats in vivo.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: a: Lugasi, - Kéry, K. Hagymási, A. Blázovics, A. Lugasi, Sz. T. Kristó, J. Fehér, and Á. Kéry
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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: T. Ábel, A. Blázovics, A. Wimmer, G. Bekő, B. Gaál, B. Blazics, M. Eldin, J. Fehér, I. Szabolcs, and G. Lengyel

The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity is actually a topic of intense research nowadays. In this study we investigated the effect of moderate consumption of white wine in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-two patients with metabolic syndrome participated in this prospective, randomised, double-blind study. The subjects received either Müller-Thurgau (n=14) or Pintes (n=18) sort of wine for 4 weeks. Male and female subjects consumed 300 ml wine (30 g alcohol) and 200 ml wine (20 g alcohol) per day, respectively. Clinical and laboratory parameters were determined before and after the period of wine consumption. The HOMA-IR showed a significant decrease upon the consumption of both sorts of wine as compared to the baseline (Müller-Thurgau group: 1.85±2.1 vs. 1.06±0.6; P=0.03; Pintes group: 2.28±2.04 vs. 1.08±0.6; P=0.002). Four weeks of wine consumption lead to significant decreased of ALT (alanine aminotransferase; Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.003; Pintes group: P=0.002) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase; Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.003; Pintes group: P=0.02). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels increased significantly in both groups (Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.004; Pintes group: P=0.001). The plasma reducing capacity increased significantly upon the consumption of both sorts of wine (Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.002; Pintes group: P=0.001). In patients consuming Müller-Thurgau there was a significant decrease of total cholesterol (5.4±1.4 vs. 4.9±1.2 mmol l−1; P=0.006) and LDL-cholesterol (3.9±1.1 vs. 3.6±1.2 mmol l−1; P=0.04) levels. In the Pintes group we found no significant difference either in total cholesterol (5.1±0.6 vs. 5.0±0.7 mmol l−1; P=0.25) or LDL-cholesterol (3.6±0.6 vs. 3.6±0.6 mmol l−1; P=0.5) concentrations. The results of our study confirm that moderate consumption of white wine increases insulin sensitivity and EGF levels in persons with metabolic syndrome.

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