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Single screw extrusion of cassava starch was evaluated as a pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the extrudate and fermentation to yield alcohol. The acid concentration, barrel temperature and moisture content showed that all the variables were significant. Increasing acid concentration or barrel temperature induced starch depolymerisation with a higher water solubility index and lower water absorption index. At 20 and 24% moisture contents the cold paste viscosity decreased. As a result of the addition of acid during extrusion cooking the degree of starch hydrolysis resulted in low hot paste viscosity. Acid concentration was significant in the production of reducing sugars. At concentrations above 0.024 N, as the temperature increased, the reducing sugar content also increased. Nevertheless, at concentrations below 0.024 N, the reducing sugar content showed the opposite result. The best yield of alcohol obtained from the extruded starch was 98.7% (0.56 g of ethanol/g starch), which, on average, was 5.7% and 6.8% higher than that obtained from starch extruded without acid and from starch gelatinized by the conventional method, respectively.

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Abstract

A new CrIII–Schiff base complex of N,N′-ethylene-bis-salicylamide (Salm), supported on acidic alumina, was characterized by chemical and spectral (UV–Vis-DRS and FT-IR) analyses. The comparative catalytic activity of the neat and supported metal complex was evaluated using H2O2 decomposition as the model reaction at varying H2O2 concentration and amount of catalyst which showed a higher activity for the supported metal complex. A preliminary study showed that the supported CrIII(Salm) was also active for the oxidation of phenol using H2O2 as oxidant leading to catechol (selectivity ∼62%) and hydroquinone (selectivity ∼32%) as the major products.

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