We give some conditions under which an R-endomorphism f fixing an essential ideal I of a right near-ring R must be the identity R-automorphism on RR. As a consequence of the results obtained we generalize the theorem of .
Mössbauer spectra of alkali tris(maleato) ferrates(III), i.e., M3[Fe(C2H2C2O4)3]·nH2O [M=Li, Na, K, Cs] at 300 K display a doublet. The Mössbauer parameters indicate these complexes to be high spin with octahedral
symmetry. The isomer shift shows a decreasing trend with the increase in electronegativity/polarizing power of the substituent
cation (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+). A linear correlation between isomer shift values and the (Fe−O) stretching frequencies has also been observed.
Authors:Mamun-Al-Mahtab, Salimur Rahman, Mobin Khan, Ayub Mamun, and Kamal
The aim of this study is to compare Knodell and HAI scores in patients with wild type and precore/core promoter mutant CHB to see if there is any difference in severity of liver injury between these two types of HBV.
We did percutaneous liver biopsies of 155 CHB patients. 102 (65.8%) of them were infected wild type HBV and the rest 53 (34.2%) were infected with precore/core promoter mutant CHB.
11/53 (20.8%) patients with precore/core promoter mutant CHB had moderate to severe CH (HAI score 8–18). In contrast, moderate to severe CH was seen in 19/102 (18.6%) patients with wild type CHB. Fibrosis score was >2 in 15/53 (28.3%) precore/core promoter mutant CHB as opposed to 20/102 (19.6%) patients with wild type CHB.
The study shows that precore/core promoter mutant HBV produces more severe histologic liver disease compared to wild type HBV.
Authors:Mamun-Al-Mahtab, Salimur Rahman, Mobin Khan, Kamal, and Fazal Karim
Autoimmune hepatitis is defined as chronic liver disease of unknown aetiology with aberrant autoreactivity and genetic predisposition. It is characterized by female predominance, circulating auto-antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia and association with HLA DR3 and HLA DR4 . Differential diagnosis includes chronic viral hepatitis, drug induced hepatitis and alcohol. We present two patients with autoimmune hepatitis representing the two extremes of hepatic involvement in this condition. The first patient is a young lady who was diagnosed with autoimmune chronic hepatitis. The second patient, on the other hand, is an elderly gentleman who presented to us with autoimmune hepatitis-related decompensated cirrhosis of liver.
Authors:Venkata Ramana Malipeddi, Rajendra Awasthi, and Kamal Dua
Metoprolol tartrate is rapidly absorbed from both gastric and intestinal regions, after oral administration. To retard the release rate of the metoprolol tartrate, microspheres were prepared with varying concentrations of a mixture containing ethylcellulose and polyethylene glycol-6000. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for various physicochemical characteristics and in vitro drug release. The percent yield of microspheres was in the range of 75.2–87.3%. The particle size of microspheres was found to be in the range of 73.2–85.5 μm. Fourier transform-infrared spectral analysis and differential scanning calorimetry concluded the absence of any interaction between the drug and the carriers. The release time profile of metoprolol tartrate from microspheres in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution was to the extent of 33.4–60.2%. The complete release of metoprolol tartrate occurred from MPT-3 and MPT-4 in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) within 8 and 7 h, respectively, whereas the incomplete release (72.3%) occurred from MPT-1. Nearly, the complete release (98.5%) of metoprolol occurred from MPT-2 in 10 h. Formulation MPT-2 would be a preferred formulation. The release of metoprolol involves diffusion rate limited (R2 = 0.9865) as a mechanism from drug release. The prepared microspheres of metoprolol tartrate eliminate the need for multiple dosing and provide patient compliance.
Authors:Mhaveer Singh, Yunus Kamal, Ennus Tamboli, Rabea Parveen, Shahid Ansari, and Sayeed Ahmad
A novel HPTLC method has been developed for the estimation of glabridin in Licorice rhizome and its Unani polyherbal formulation (Qurs-e-Gul). Separation was achieved on silica using toluene, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate in equal ratios. A compact, well resolved peak of glabridin with RF value 0.56 ± 0.02 was observed. Calibration curve revealed a good linear relationship with r2 value of 0.993 between the peak area and concentration in the range of 25–500 ng spot−1. The proposed method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The stability assessment was carried out by studying degradation of glabridin stressed by acid, base, oxidation, thermal, and humidity. Photodegradation was also carried out after keeping the drug in sunlight, dark, and in UV lights. The method proposed can be used for routine determination of glabridin in crude drugs and in herbal formulations containing Licorice as one of the ingredients, for quality control as well as for stability testing with high precision, accuracy and a wide range of linearity.
Authors:Kamal Dua, Shakti Dhar Shukla, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, and Philip Michael Hansbro
Considering the various limitations associated with the conventional dosage forms, nanotechnology is gaining increased attention in drug delivery particularly in respiratory medicine and research because of its advantages like targeting effects, improved pharmacotherapy, and patient compliance. This paper provides a quick snapshot about the recent trends and applications of nanotechnology to various translational and formulation scientists working on various respiratory diseases, which can help paving a new path in developing effective drug delivery system.
Authors:Alireza Khorami-Moghadam, Amir Jalilian, Kamal Yavari, Bahram Bolouri, Ali Bahrami-Samani, and Mohammad Ghannadi-Maragheh
Antiangiogenic monoclonal antibodies in combination with therapeutic radionuclides are potential targeted therapy agents in
cancer. In this study, bevacizumab was successively labeled with [166Ho]HoCl3 after conjugation with DOTA-NHS-ester with a radiochemical purity of higher than 95% (RTLC). The conjugates were purified
by molecular filtration, the average number of DOTA conjugated per mAb was calculated and total concentration was determined
by spectrophotometric method and the average chelate to antibody ratio (c/a) for the conjugate used in this study was 5.8:1
and protein integrity experiments (SDS-PAGE). The biodistribution studies in wild-type rats demonstrate a similar pattern
to the other radiolabeled anti-vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) immunoconjugates. 166Ho-DOTA-bevacizumab is a potential compound for therapy/imaging of VEGF-A expression in oncology.