Authors:L. Kredics, Kata Terecskei, Zsuzsanna Antal, A. Szekeres, L. Hatvani, L. Manczinger, and Cs. Vágvölgyi
isolates were screened for the production of proteolytic activities at 10 °C. Based on the activity profiles determined with paranitroanilide substrates at 5 °C, strain T221 identified as
was selected for further investigations. The culture broth of the strain grown at 10 °C in casein-containing culture medium was concentrated by lyophilization and subjected to gel filtration, which was followed by chromatofocusing of the fraction showing the highest activity on
-benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-paranitroanilide. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of 24 kDa, an isoelectric point of 7.3 and a pH optimum of 6.2. The temperature optimum of 25 °C and the low thermal stability suggested that it is a true cold-adapted enzyme. Substrate specificity data indicate that the enzyme is a proteinase with a preference for Arg or Lys at the P1 position. The effect of proteinase inhibitors suggests that the enzyme has a binding pocket similar to the one present in trypsin.
Authors:S. Naeimi, S. Kocsubé, Zsuzsanna Antal, S. Okhovvat, M. Javan-Nikkhah, C. Vágvölgyi, and L. Kredics
In order to identify a specific marker for T. harzianum AS12-2, a strain capable of controlling rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani, UP-PCR was performed using five universal primers (UP) both separately and in pairwise combinations. The application of two UP primers resulted in the amplification of unique fragments from the genomic DNA of T. harzianum AS12-2, clearly distinguishing it from other Trichoderma strains. The unique fragments had no significant sequence homology with any other known sequence available in databases. Based on the sequences of the unique fragments, 14 oligonucleotide primers were designed. Two primer sets amplified a fragment of expected size from the DNA of strain T. harzianum AS12-2 but not from any other examined strains belonging to T. harzianum, to other Trichoderma species assayed, or to other common fungi present in paddy fields of Mazandaran province, Iran. In conclusion, SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) markers were successfully identified and rapid, reliable tools were provided for the detection of an effective biocontrol Trichoderma strain, which can facilitate studies of its population dynamics and establishment after release into the natural environment.
Authors:S. Naeimi, S. Khodaparast, M. Javan-Nikkhah, C. Vágvölgyi, and L. Kredics
As a first step of a project aimed at the identification of potential biocontrol agents of Rhizoctonia solani, the rice sheath blight fungus, we surveyed the biodiversity of the genus Trichoderma based on sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2 of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster in paddy fields in Mazandaran province, Northern Iran. Amongst the six obtained species of Trichoderma, T. harzianum and T. virens proved to be the most frequent species in this habitat. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the T. harzianum isolates can be divided into 14 different ITS genotypes clustering in four groups. Our results are in agreement with previous molecular studies, which also revealed that T. harzianum is a complex species comprising more or less different ITS genotypes. T. virens was not as diverse as T. harzianum and three different genotypes were distinguished which constituted only one cluster. All T. atroviride and T. hamatum strains had identical ITS sequences.