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Thermal and kinetic study of statins

Simvastatin and lovastatin

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: M. Souza, Marta Conceição, M. Silva, L. Soledade, and A. Souza

Abstract  

Statins are a group of lipoproteins that are used in medicine to treat the high cholesterol level. The effectiveness of statins in reducing the cholesterol level is significant and in long time scale the reduction of the cholesterol level helps to avoid the incidence of degenerative diseases. Simvastatin and lovastatin are belonging to the ‘statins’ family, one of the pharmacologic groups used in the control of dislipidemy. The objective of this work is the thermal stability and kinetic study of the active forms of simvastatin and lovastatin. Thermal data indicated that lovastatin and simvastatin are stable up to 190 and 170°C in air and up to 205 and 203°C in nitrogen, respectively. For melting temperatures DSC curves showed good correlation with the literature data. Comparing the activation energies of the statins at heating rate of 10°C min–1, lovastatin is more stable than simvastatin under the applied experimental conditions.

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Abstract  

The present work investigates the influence of milling and calcination atmosphere on the thermal decomposition of SrTiO3 powder precursors. Both pure and neodymium-modified SrTiO3 samples were studied. Milling did not significantly influence numerical mass loss value, but reduced the number of decomposition steps, modifying the profiles of the TG and DTA curves. On the other hand, milling increases the amount of energy liberated by the system upon combustion of organic matter. It was also observed that the milling process, associated to the calcination in an oxygen atmosphere, considerably decreases the amount of organic matter and increases the final mass loss temperature.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: E. Araújo, Renata Barbosa, Crislene Morais, L. Soledade, A. Souza, and Moema Vieira

Abstract  

Nanocomposites containing both polyethylene and montmorillonite clay organically modified with four different types of quaternary ammonium salts were obtained via direct melt intercalation. Thus, the main purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the organoclay on the thermal stability of polyethylene. The organoclays were characterized by XRD, FTIR, DSC and TG. The polyethylene/organoclay nanocomposites were studied by XRD, TEM, TG, besides an evaluation of their mechanical properties. The results showed that the salts were incorporated by intercalation between the layers of the organoclay and, apparently that the nanocomposites were more thermally stable than pure polyethylene.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Márcia Silva, Mary Alves, S. Lima, L. Soledade, Elaine Paris, E. Longo, A. Souza, and Iêda Santos

Abstract  

Sr(Ti,Nd)O3 was synthesized in order to evaluate the influence of the amount of neodymium on the thermal and structural properties of SrTiO3. The synthesis was carried out using the polymeric precursor method. A small mass gain was observed for the SrTiO3 and SrTi0.98Nd0.02O3 samples accompanied by an exothermic peak in the DTA curves. Other steps at higher temperatures are assigned to the combustion of the organic material and carbonate. Elimination of defects by previous calcination of the precursors is responsible by the short and long range ordering of the perovskite. Cubic phase was obtained for undoped and doped SrTiO3.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: R. Candeia, J. Freitas, M. Souza, Marta Conceição, Iêda Santos, L. Soledade, and A. Souza

Abstract  

The most feasible alternative among fuels derived from biomass seems to be the biodiesel, having the required characteristics for a total or partial substitution of diesel oil. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the thermal and rheological behavior of the blends of diesel with the methanol biodiesel obtained from soybean oil, using B5, B15 and B25 blends. All thermogravimetric curves exhibited one overlapping mass loss step in the 35–280C temperature range at air atmosphere and one step between 37–265C in nitrogen. The rheological study showed a Newtonian behavior (n=1) for all blends.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Crislene Morais, C. Gameiro, P. Santa-Cruz, S. Alves Jr, L. Soledade, and A. Souza

Abstract  

The complexes of general formula Ln(btfa)3L, where Ln=Eu or Tb, btfa=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione, L=1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or 2,2-bipyridine (bipy), were synthesized by reacting the corresponding metal chloride with the proper β-diketone and the other ligand. The complexes were obtained in the powder form and were characterized by photoluminescence and TG. Their thermal decomposition was studied by non-isothermal thermogravimetric techniques. The Eu(btfa)3bipy complex presented the highest thermal stability and it melts before being decomposed. The complex Eu(btfa)3phen presented the largest activation energy for a heating rate of 5C min–1.

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Abstract  

SnO2-based materials are used as sensors, catalysts and in electro–optical devices. This work aims to synthesize and characterize the SnO2/Sb2O3-based inorganic pigments, obtained by the polymeric precursor method, also known as Pechini method (based on the metallic citrate polymerization by means of ethylene glycol). The precursors were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). After characterization, the precursors were heat-treated at different temperatures and characterized by X-ray diffraction. According to the TG/DTA curves basically two-step mass loss process was observed: the first one is related to the dehydration of the system; and the second one is representative to the combustion of the organic matter. Increase of the heat treatment temperature from 500 to 600C and 700C resulted higher crystallinity of the formed product.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: C. Santos, B. Capistrano, F. Vieira, M. Santos, S. Lima, E. Longo, C. Paskocimas, A. Souza, L. Soledade, and I. Santos

Abstract  

In this work, spinels with the general formula Zn2−xCoxTiO4 were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method and thermally treated at 1,000 °C. The powder precursors were characterized by TG/DTA. A decrease in the DTA peak temperature with the amount of zinc was observed. After the thermal treatment, the characterizations were performed by XRD, IR, colorimetry and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of all the samples showed the presence of the spinel phase. Infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of ester complexes for Zn2TiO4 after thermal treatment at 500 °C, which disappeared after cobalt addition, indicating that organic material elimination was favored.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Camila Xavier, R. Candeia, M. Bernardi, S. Lima, E. Longo, C. Paskocimas, L. Soledade, A. Souza, and Iêda Santos

Abstract  

Magnesium and zinc ferrites have been prepared by the polymeric precursor method. The organic material decomposition was studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The variation of crystalline phases and particle morphology with calcination temperature were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), respectively. The colors of the ferrites were evaluated using colorimetry. Magnesium ferrite crystallizes above 800°C, presenting a yellow- orange color with a reflectance peak at the 600–650 nm range, while zinc ferrite crystallizes at 600°C, with a reflectance peak between 650–700 nm, corresponding to the red-brick color.

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