A novel multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) method which combined with gas chromatography (GC) coupled with electron capture detector (ECD) was developed for the determination of five pyrethroid pesticides in liquid milk for the first time. The effect of d-SPE conditions on the kinds of sorbent, MWCNTs and magnesium sulfate anhydro mass ratio, and extraction condition were researched, and then, the suitable method was found. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range was from 20 to 500 μg kg−1. The recoveries were from 81.8% to 112.1%, with the corresponding relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6%, correlation coefficients from 0.9978 to 0.9990, and limits of detection and quantification from 2.62 to 4.86 μg kg−1 and 8.73 to 16.2 μg kg−1. The proposed method is simple, fast, safe, and has high recovery and sensitivity applicable to analyze pyrethroid pesticides in liquid milk sample.
Sodium contents in seven mixtures of biological materials from varying aliquants of wheat flour and oyster tissue were analyzed using the INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis) method. The samples were activated in the thermal column (TC) of the 1 MW TRIGA reactor at our laboratory. To analyze and compare the measured results, the ratioa of the epithermal neutron flux to the thermal neutron flux was determined in the TC, the rotating rack (RR) and the pneumatic terminal (PT). Due to the negligible interferences of24Mg(n, p)24Na and27Al(n, )24Na to23Na(n, )24Na, the Na results were obtained with 97% accuracy and 99% precision. It is shown that the method is suited for accurately determining Na contents in 12 various biological materials, especially for the samples that are low in Na content. From the cadmium ratio measurements of Au (4.9 eV resonance of198Au) and Sm (8 eV resonance of153Sm), ratios ofae/
0 were determined at 0.0011, 0.052 and 0.053 in the TC, RR and PT activation positions, respectively.
The kinetics of thermal decomposition of a series of uranyl nitrate complexes with N-alkylcaprolactams (alkyl=C2H5, C4H9, C6H13, C8H17, C10H21 or C12H25) was studied by means of non-isothermal gravimetry under a nitrogen atmosphere. From the TG-DTG curves, the kinetic parameters
relating to the loss of two molecules of coordinated ligand were obtained by employing two groups of methods: (I) a group
of conventional methods involving the Coast-Redfern, Freeman-Carroll, Horowitz-Metzger, Dharwadkar-Karkhanavala and Doyle
(modified by Zsakó) equations; (II) a new method were suggested by J. Máleket al.. The results obtained using two types of methods were compared, and it emerged that the results of method II were much more
meaningful and reasonable in this work. Additionally, the effects of the molecular structure of the ligands on the kinetic
data and models were studied and are discussed.
Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PANI/MWNT) composites were prepared by in situ polymerization. Transmission electron
microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were used to characterize the PANI/MWNT composites.
Thermal stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) were measured by thermogravimetry (TG) and temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC), respectively.
The TG and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curves indicated that with augment of MWNTs content, the thermal stability of
PANI/MWNT composites increased continuously. While, Tg increased and then decreased with the MWNTs content increasing from 0 to 20 mass%.
The dilution enthalpies of D-mannitol and D-sorbitol in aqueous sodium chloride solution at various concentrations have been determined by isothermal microcalorimetry
at 298.15 K. The homogeneous enthalpic interaction coefficients over a quite large range of concentration of aqueous sodium
chloride solutions have been calculated according to the excess enthalpy concept. The results show that enthalpic pairwise
interaction coefficients (h2) of D-mannitol and D-sorbitol are positive in aqueous sodium chloride solution and become more positive with increase of the concentration of
sodium chloride. The results are interpreted in terms of the different conformations of the two polyols, solute-solute and
solute-solvent interactions involved by solvent effects.
Authors:L. Yang, F. Xu, L. Sun, Z. Zhao, and C. Song
Microcalorimetry was applied to study the effect of cephalosporins (cefazolin sodium and cefonicid sodium) on the E. coli growth. The microbial activity was recorded as power-time curves through an ampoule method with a TAM Air Isothermal Microcalorimeter
at 37°C. The parameters such as the growth rate constant (k), inhibitory ratio (I), the maximum power output (Pm) and the time corresponding to the maximum power output (tm) were calculated. The change tendencies of k, with the increasing of concentration (C) of the two cephalosporins, are similar which show that cefazolin sodium and cefonicid sodium have the same inhibitory mechanism.
The experimental results reveal that cefonicid sodium has a stronger antibacterial activity towards E. coli than that of cefazolin sodium and this was coincide with the clinical manifestations.
Microcalorimetry was applied to study the toxic action of two cobalt compounds such as bis(salicylideniminato-3-propyl)methylaminocobalt(II)
(denoted as Co(II)) and Co(III) sepulchrate trichloride (denoted as Co(sep)3+) on (E. coli) DH5α. The power-time curves of the E. coli DH5α growth were determined, and the thermokinetics parameters such as the growth rate constant k, the maximum power output Pm and the time (tm) corresponding to the Pm were obtained. The half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Co(II) and Co(sep)3+ to E. coli DH5α were 15 and 42.1 mg mL−1, respectively.
The experimental results revealed that the toxicity of the Co(II) compound was larger than that of Co(sep)3+. On the other hand, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that the two cobalt compounds had the same toxic
mechanism on E. coli DH5α, which was attributed to the damage of cell wall of the bacteria caused by both Co(II) and Co(sep)3+. Furthermore, accumulation of intracellular cobalt of E. coli DH5α, due to the interaction of Co(II) or Co(sep)3+ and E. coli DH5α, has been found by using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analytical technique.
Authors:J. Zeng, Z. Cao, D. Yang, L. Sun, and L. Zhang
One of the greatest challenges in the application of organic phase change materials (PCMs) is to increase their thermal conductivity
while maintaining high phase change enthalpy. 1-Tetradecanol/Ag nanowires composite PCM containing 62.73 wt% (about 11.8 vol%)
of Ag nanowires showed remarkably high thermal conductivity (1.46 W m−1 K−1) and reasonably high phase change enthalpy (76.5 J g−1). This behavior was attributed to the high aspect ratio of Ag nanowires, few thermal conduct interfaces, and high interface
thermal conductivity of Ag nanowires in the composite PCM. These results indicated that Ag nanowires might be strong candidates
for thermal conductivity enhancement of organic PCMs.
Authors:L. Wang, S. Jiao, Y. Jiang, H. Yan, D. Su, G. Sun, X. Yan, and L. Sun
Genetic structure of 142 parent lines of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] was analyzed using model-based approach based on SSR markers. Forty-one selected from 103 SSR markers were used to analyze the parent lines, which generated 189 alleles revealed by each marker ranging from 2 to 11 with an average of 4.6 per marker. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.543 with a range of 0.089 to 0.850. All the parent lines were assigned to 7 subgroups, named Kafir, Kaoliang, Feterita, Shallu, Hegari, Milo and Durra. Parent lines without clear pedigree record were clustered into their corresponding groups, and genetic components of each line were estimated by Q-values. Information of this study would be useful for breeders to conclude their genetic background and select appropriate parents for germplasm improvement and hybrid breeding, and thus improve the efficiency of breeding programs.