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Hydroponic studies were conducted to investigate the role of iron plaque on transport and distribution of chromium (Cr) by rice seedlings. Microscopical observations indicate that iron plaque developed quickly at the root surface of rice seedlings, but the distribution of iron plaque was more intense near root base and less towards root tip. Results showed that rice seedlings exposed to Cr(III) depicted significantly higher capacity for Cr accumulation in plant tissues than Cr(VI) in the presence of iron plaque. However, transport of Cr within plant cells was more evident in Cr(VI) treatment with iron plaque than Cr(III) treatment. Results also showed that there are significant impact on transport of K, Mn and Zn in rice seedlings treated with Cr(VI) in the presence of iron plaque, while significant effect on transport of Mn and Zn were observed in Cr(III)-treated rice seedlings. Results from detached root test provide additional evidence to confirm the presence of iron plaque, that had different impact on Cr uptake when Cr(VI) or Cr(III) was supplied.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Hongxiang M, Jinbao Yao, Miaoping Zhou, Xu Zhang, Lijuan Ren, Giuhong Yu, and Weizhong Lu

Wheat Fusarium head blight (FHB) may cause serious losses in grain yield and quality in China. More than 7 million hectares which approximately accounts for 25% of the total areas in China is infected by the disease. The cultivation of wheat varieties with resistance to Fusarium head blight is recognized as one of the most important components to diminish losses due to this disease. Chinese wheat breeders have commenced the research on FHB since 1950s. Wheat cultivars with improved FHB resistance were developed through conventional breeding. Some famous resistant varieties such as Sumai 3, Yangmai 158 and Ning 7840 were released from Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, these varieties were widely applied in wheat production and breeding programs. Significant achievements concerning molecular mapping and marker assisted selection have been made in the past decade. The major QTL on chromosome 3BS was identified and located in the same region on chromosome 3BS in Sumai 3, Ning 894037, Wangshuibai, and Chinese Spring. Using SSR marker in this QTL region for assisted selection, some lines with the same resistance to FHB were obtained. New STS markers and SSCP markers were developed and will be tested for the efficiency of MAS. However, further achievements are still hindered by a number of constraints. More FHB resistance genetic resources from landrace in middle to lower reaches of Yangtze River are necessary to be used for improving FHB resistant. The genetic mechanism of the varieties contributing the resistance to improved cultivars is needed to be understood. Development of functional markers for FHB is discussed.

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Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a very serious disease in wheat and barley production area. FHB epidemics cause yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. Understanding the infection mechanism of F. graminearum plays an important role for the disease control. In present study, green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged were infected to wheat and barley varieties by single floret injection and screened via GFP signal. Results showed similar infection pattern of F. graminearum on both wheat and barley. Pathogen geminated in the inoculated spikelets, grew on the top of ovary or between lemma and palea, and extended towards and through rachis to the adjacent spikelets to infect the whole spike. When a spike of cultivar with FHB resistance was inoculated by F. graminearum , only the injected spikelet showed symptom at 6 days past inoculation (dpi). GFP signals indicated that F. graminearum colonized only in the inoculated spikelet and stop at the compact tissue of rachilla at 6 dpi. On the contrary, the diseased spikelets were up to 5 at 6 dpi in the spike of cultivars susceptible to FHB. F. graminearum extended through compact tissue to rachis and infected to the adjacent spikelets by spreading upward and downward to adjacent florets inter- and intra-cellularly in vascular bundles and cortical tissue of the rachis.

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