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  • Author or Editor: M. Kato x
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Saline irrigation water has a tremendous impact on the yield potential of crops. The distribution of mineral elements and their ratios in maize plant organs in response to saline water and nitrogen (N) nutrition was studied in a pot experiment for six weeks. The plants were separated into leaf, stalk and root and analysed for calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K) and chloride (Cl) contents. The partitioning and ratios of mineral nutrients in plants were significantly affected by water salinity and nitrogen level. In saline water the roots contained the highest Na content; Ca and Mg were higher in the leaf, whereas K and Cl were highest in the stalk. In non-saline water, Na and Cl were highest in the root and the remaining elements were greatest in the stalk. The K and Cl contents were significantly reduced by an increase in the N level, whereas the reverse was true for the Ca, Mg and Na contents. An inverse relationship was noted for the plant biomass versus both Na uptake and the Na/Ca, Na/Mg and Na/K ratios in plants irrigated with saline water. The mineral elements, with the exception of K, appeared to be highly correlated in the plant parts.

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Scope of the study was to find more effective N fertilisation doses and applications to reach not only higher quantity but better quality grains as well as to be able to help preserving the continuity of feed and food quality improvement, since wheat is one of the most consumed crops all over the world.

Samples of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties harvested from the experimental field of the Szent István University in two consecutive crop seasons had been examined in the laboratory of the Crop Production Institute. Effects of nitrogen (N) application on the performance of grain protein were tested. Five high quality winter wheat varieties were studied regarding grain quality traits affected by applying undivided and split doses of N. The evaluated samples show that increasing doses of N topdressing and increasing time of application have beneficial effects on the yield and the value of protein content. Wheat grain protein value ranged between 9.9% of the untreated Mv Karéj and Alföld, where the 120+40 kg ha-1 N was applied resulting in the highest value of 16.0%. Similarly, the gluten values among untreated and N applied plots were in a wide range. Mv Karéj had the lowest wheat gluten value on untreated plot with 18.4% and Alfold had the highest value with 36.8% on the plot where the 120+40 kg ha-1 N was applied. There were no significant changes recorded on test weight and thousand kernel weight. In the case of baking quality, there were significant differences between varieties. The best records were obtained in the case of Mv Toborzö followed by Mv Karéj.

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