Integrating data from three independent data sources––USPTO patenting data, Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Academic Ranking
of World Universities (ARWU) and the Times Higher Education Supplement’s World University Ranking (WUR), we examine the possible
link between patenting output and the quantity and quality of scientific publications among 281 leading universities world-wide.
We found that patenting by these universities, as measured by patents granted by the USPTO, has grown consistently faster
than overall US patenting over 1977–2000, although it has grown more slowly over the last 5 years (2000–2005). Moreover, since
the mid-1990s, patenting growth has been faster among universities outside North America than among those within North America.
We also found that the patenting output of the universities over 2003–2005 is significantly correlated with the quantity and
quality of their scientific publications. However, significant regional variations are found: for universities in North America,
both the quantity and quality of scientific publications matter, but for European and Australian/NZ universities, only the
quantity of publications matter, while for other universities outside North America and Europe/Australia/NZ, only quality
of publications matter. We found similar findings when using EPO patenting data instead of USPTO data. Additionally, for USPTO
data only, the degree of internationalization of faculty members is found to reduce patenting performance among North American
universities, but to increase that of universities outside North America. Plausible explanations for these empirical observations
and implications for future research are discussed.
By tracing the flows of patent citation to prior patents and scientific journal articles, we investigate the sources of knowledge
for innovation output in Singapore, a small, highly open economy that has traditionally been significantly dependent on foreign
multinational corporations (MNCs). We found that the local production of new knowledge by indigenous Singaporean firms depends
disproportionately on technological knowledge produced by MNCs with operational presence in Singapore and scientific knowledge generated by foreign universities. Locally produced new knowledge by indigenous firms and local universities/ public
research institutes constitutes an as yet insignificant, albeit growing, source for innovation in Singapore.
Nanotechnology patenting has grown rapidly in recent years as an increasing number of countries are getting into the global
nanotechnology race. Using a refined methodology to identify and classify nanotechnology patents, this paper analyses the
changing pattern of internationalization of nanotechnology patenting activities from 1976–2004. We show that the dominance
of the G5 countries have declined in recent years, not only in terms of quantity, but also in terms of quality as measured
by citation indicators. In addition, using a new approach to classifying the intended areas of commercial applications, we
show that nanotechnology patenting initially emphasized instrumentation, but exhibited greater diversification to other application
areas in recent years. Significant differences in application area specialization are also found among major nanotechnology
nations. Moreover, universities are found to play a significant and increasing role in patenting, particularly in US, UK and