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Abstract

The primary aim of this study was to investigate the influence of emotional expression and dynamic information on attractiveness judgements of male and female targets. 56 undergraduate participants were presented with video and static stimuli in smiling and neutral conditions (40 targets, 160 stimuli). Our results indicate that smiling and movement influence attractiveness judgements differentially for male and female targets. Smiling increases the attractiveness ratings of female, but not male targets, whereas movement increases the attractiveness ratings of male, but not female targets. Secondly, and perhaps most importantly, our findings demonstrate that the evaluative standards used by raters differ across presentation conditions. Although ratings of women's faces are positively related across movement and expression conditions, attractiveness ratings of smiling and neutral men's faces are correlated within movement conditions, but not across them. These findings highlight the importance of studying faces in motion to determine the factors influencing interpersonal attraction, and caution against the overgeneralization of results from research using static faces.

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Abstract

Background

Researchers are only just beginning to understand the neurocognitive drivers of addiction-like eating behaviours, a highly distressing and relatively common condition. Two constructs have been consistently linked to addiction-like eating: distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility. Despite a large body of addiction research showing that impulsivity-related traits can interact with other risk markers to result in an especially heightened risk for addictive behaviours, no study to date has examined how distress-driven impulsivity interacts with cognitive inflexibility in relation to addiction-like eating behaviours. The current study examines the interactive contribution of distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility to addiction-like eating behaviours.

Method

One hundred and thirty-one participants [mean age 21 years (SD = 2.3), 61.8% female] completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale, the S-UPPS-P impulsivity scale, and a cognitive flexibility task. A bootstrap method was used to examine the associations between distress-driven impulsivity, cognitive inflexibility, and their interaction with addiction-like eating behaviours.

Results

There was a significant interaction effect between distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive flexibility (P = 0.03). The follow-up test revealed that higher distress-driven impulsivity was associated with more addiction-like eating behaviours among participants classified as cognitively inflexible only.

Conclusion

The current findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying addiction-like eating behaviours, including how traits and cognition might interact to drive them. The findings also suggest that interventions that directly address distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility might be effective in reducing risk for addiction-like eating and related disorders.

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