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Two new y-type HMW-GSs in Ae. tauschii , 1Dy12.1* t and 1Dy12.2 t with the mobility order of 1Dy12.2 t > 1Dy12.1* t > 1Dy12.1 t >1Dy12, were identified by both SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Molecular cloning and sequencing showed that the genes encoding subunits 1Dy12.1* t and 1Dy12.2 t had identical nucleotide acid sequences with 1,947 bp encoding a mature protein of 627 residues. Their deduced molecular weights were 67,347.6 Da, satisfactorily corresponding to that of 1Dy12.2 t subunit determined by MALDI-TOF-MS (67,015.7 Da), but was significantly smaller than that of the the 1Dy12.1* t subunit (68,577.1 Da). Both subunits showed high similarities to 1Dy10, suggesting that they could have a positive effect on bread-making quality. Interestingly, the expressed protein of the cloned ORF from accessions TD87 and TD130 in E. coli co-migrated with subunit 1Dy12.2 t , but moved slightly faster than 1Dy12.1* t on SDS-PAGE. The expressed protein in transgenic tobacco seeds, however, had the same mobility as the 1Dy12.1* t subunit, as confirmed by both SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Although direct evidence of phosphoprotein could not be obtained by specific staining method, certain types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the 1Dy12.1* t subunit could not be excluded. We believe PTMs might be responsible for the molecular weight difference between the subunits 1Dy12.1* t and 1Dy12.2 t .

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Soil moisture is a major driving force of plant community succession in restored meadows. Existing studies mainly focus on diversity-productivity relationships. However, studies which determine the effects of soil moisture on the plant community properties in restored meadows are lacking. In this study, we conducted a chronosequence analysis of the interactions between soil water content variation and plant community properties in meadows following passive restoration (3-, 5-, 9-, 14-, 17-, 21-year restoration) of abandoned farmlands on the Sanjiang Plain, China. Results showed that the plant community was characterized by ruderal plants in the initial year of succession, and then by perennial plants such as Calamagrostis angustifolia and Carex spp. in older restored meadows. Similarity of restored community to target site increased across succession time whereas species diversity gradually decreased. Plant height, coverage and biomass increased with restoration time, with plant density being the exception. The community height, coverage and root/shoot ratio were positively related to the water content in the surface soil layer (0–10 cm). Conversely, plant density was significantly and negatively related with soil moisture at 0–10 cm soil depth. Plant diversity (Shannon index, Richness index and evenness) was closely correlated to soil water content at the soil depth of 0–10 cm. Our findings indicate that vegetation of cultivated meadows could be effectively restored by passive restoration. Change of plant species diversity is an especially important response to hydrological recovery in restored meadows on the Sanjiang Plain.

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Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks., is a major disease that causes substantial losses to wheat production worldwide. The utilization of effective resistance genes in wheat cultivars is the preferred control of the disease. To study the inheritance of all-stage resistance in spring wheat cultivars Louise, WA008016, Express, Solano, Alturas and Zak from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States, the six cultivars were crossed with the Chinese susceptible variety Taichung 29. Single-spore isolates of CYR32 and CYR33, the predominant Chinese races of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, were used to evaluate F1, F2 and BC1 generations for stripe rust resistance under controlled greenhouse conditions. Genetic analysis determined that Louise had one dominant resistance gene to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrLou. WA008016 had two dominant and one recessive resistance genes to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrWA1, YrWA2 and YrWA3, respectively. Express had a single recessive gene that conferred resistance to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrExp3. The two independent dominant genes in Solano conferring resistance to CYR32 were temporarily designated as YrSol1 and YrSol2. Alturas had two recessive genes for resistance to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrAlt1 and YrAlt2. Zak has one dominant gene for resistance to CYR33, temporarily designated as YrZak1. These six cultivars can be important resistance sources in Chinese wheat stripe rust resistance breeding.

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