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Summary  

The Advanced Spent Conditioning Process (ACP) developed by the KAERI is based on pyrometallurgy and the electrolytic reduction plays a central role in transforming spent oxide fuels into metals. The constituents of the spent fuels are distributed between a salt and a reduced metal phase during electrolysis. Lithium metal is produced in a molten LiCl-Li2O cell and then it reacts with the metal oxides of the spent fuel producing Li2O and reduced metals. By focusing on the activity of Li2O and the electric potential, the electrolytic reduction process of the ACP is discussed. Thermodynamic considerations are defined and operation conditions are proposed including Li2O activity and cell potential.

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Abstract  

The formation property of Mo precipitate was investigated and improved the existing process was using H2O2 that acts as an interfering compound in a subsequent alumina adsorption process. The property of the Mo precipitate was investigated by using SEM, FTIR, TG-DTA, and XRD. The simulated solution consisted of 1M nitric acid containing seven elements (Mo, I, Ru, Zr, Ce, Nd, Sr) and their radioactive tracers. As a result, the precipitate was composed of the Mo precipitate and re-precipitated a-benzoinoxime which was added excessively for increasing the precipitation efficiency. It was confirmed that the Mo precipitate was formed by the reaction of two a-benzoinoxime molecules and one MoO2 2+. Molybdenum precipitate was dissolved in 0.4M NaOH solution within 5 minutes without H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide induced only the rapid dissolution of the a-benzoinoxime re-precipitate. Also, the dissolution method without H2O2 was favorable in the purification aspect because Zr and Ru were contained as a small fraction of 1.3% and 7.7%, respectively, in the dissolving solution.

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Summary  

The electrolytic reduction of U3O8 powder was carried out using LiCl-Li2O molten salt in a 20-kg U3O8 batch cell to verify the feasibility of the process. As the current passes the cell, the decomposition of Li2O and the reduction of U3O8 occur simultaneously in a cathode assembly and oxygen gas evolvs at the anode. The results from a 20-kg U3O8 scale cell were compared with data obtained from a bench scale cell. The results suggest a successful demonstration of this process, exhibiting a reduction conversion of U3O8 of more than 99% in a batch.

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Summary  

The electrochemical reduction of uranium oxide in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel requires a characterization of the LiCl-Li2O salt used as a reaction medium. Physical properties, melting and vaporization are important for the application of the salt and thus they have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG), respectively. Experimental data suggest LiCl and Li2O compound formations, leading to a melting point depression of the LiCl and a co-vaporization of the LiCl-Li2O salt.

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Thermodynamic transition properties of highly ordered smectic phases

Series of main-chain liquid crystalline polyethers

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Y Yoon, R. -M. Ho, F. Li, B. Moon, D. Kim, J. -Y. Park, F. W. Harris, S. Z. D. Cheng, V. Percec, and P. Chu

A series of polyethers have been synthesized from 1-(4-hydroxy-4′-biphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane and α, Ω-dibromoalkanes having different numbers of methylene units [TPPs]. Both odd- and even-numbered TPPs [TPP(n=odd)s and TPP(n=even)s) exhibit multiple transitions during cooling and heating and they show little supercooling dependence, indicating close-to-equilibrium nature of these transitions. Combining the structural characterization obtainedvia wide angle X-ray diffraction powder and fiber patterns at different temperatures and the morphological observations from microscopy techniques, not only the nematic liquid crystalline phase but also highly ordered smecticF, smectic crystalG andH phases have been identified. The phase diagrams for both TPP(n=odd)s and TPP(n=even)s have been constructed [1–3]. Thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy changes) during these transitions are studied based on differential scanning calorimetry experiments. The contributions of the mesogenic groups and methylene units to each ordering process can be separated and they indicate the characteristics of these processes thereby providing estimations of the transition types.

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