Authors:T. Müller, B. Váradi, P. Horn, and M. Bercsényi
Previously described and alternative methods of the induction of sexual maturation in the European eel were investigated. Weekly administrations of a gonadoliberin agonist (GnRH-A=D-Phe6-GnRH-Ea) did not induce statistically significant effect on the gonads of treated eels in none of the dosages used (0.1 mg and 10 mg/fish). Carp pituitary extract and carp pituitary extract together with a dopamine antagonist caused considerable external changes (increase in eye size) and significant gonadal development in two treatment groups: wild and cultivated stocks. The induction of the ovulation by double amount of CP and gonadoliberin agonist with dopamine antagonist mixture was not successful in a wild stock. Fertilisation of stripped eggs of farm eel was attempted unsuccessfully in, due to low egg quality. An advanced phase of the sexual maturation process could be induced in specimen infected by Anguillicola crassus indicating, that nematode infection is not a limiting factor in the artificial propagation of the European eel.
Authors:Z. Bokor, T. Müller, M. Bercsényi, L. Horváth, B. Urbányi, and Á. Horváth
Experiments were carried out on sperm cryopreservation of two European percid fish species, the pikeperch
and the Volga pikeperch
. Two experiments were conducted on pikeperch sperm. In the first, the effects of three extenders (Glucose, KCl, Sucrose) and two cryoprotectants (dimethyl-sulfoxide: DMSO, methanol: MeOH) were tested on motility and fertilization. In the second, the effects of two dilution ratios (1: 1, 1: 9) and two cryoprotectants (DMSO, MeOH) on hatching were investigated. In the experiment on Volga pikeperch the suitability of using cryopreservation for fertilization was investigated. In the first experiment on pikeperch the highest post-thaw motility (28 ± 21%) and fertilization rate (43 ± 12%) was found with DMSO as cryoprotectant in combination with Glucose extender. In the second, the highest hatch rate (41 ± 22%) was observed with MeOH as cryoprotectant and 1: 1 sperm dilution ratio, however no significant difference was found among the results. In the experiment on Volga pikeperch hatch rates with cryopreserved sperm (60 ± 2%) did not significantly differ from the control (60 ± 6%). Contamination of sperm with urine seems to be a key problem in the success of sperm cryopreservation of these species.
Authors:D. Varga, T. Müller, A. Specziár, H. Fébel, Cs. Hancz, Gy. Bázár, B. Urbányi, and A. Szabó
Fatty acid (FA) composition of the fillet and the intestinal content of dwarf common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) living in Lake Hévíz was determined in wintertime collected samples and results were compared to widespread literature data on carp. Fillet FA profile of the thermally adapted (28 °C) Hévíz dwarf carps differed from profiles originated from divergent culture and feeding conditions in the overall level of saturation. Fillet myristic acid proportions largely exceeded all literature data in spite of poor dietary supply. Fillet fatty acid results indicate the effects of thermal adaptation (high saturation level) and the correlative effects of feed components rich in omega-3 fatty acids, with special respect to docosahexaenoic acid. With the application of discriminant factor analysis the Hévíz sample was accurately differentiated from the literature data on carp fillet fatty acid profile, mostly based on C14:0, C18:1 n9, C18:2 n6, C20:1 n9 and C20:4 n6 FAs. In summary, fillet FA profile suggested thermal adaptation, location specificity and the ingestion of algal and bacterial material.
Authors:L. Horváth, Cs. Székely, Zs. Boczonádi, E. Mészáros, M. Bercsényi, B. Urbányi, and T. Müller
European eel is a catadromous fish species, which means that after living in freshwater premature individuals adapt to sea water, and migrate to the Sargasso Sea for spawning. Although male eel can be sexually matured even in freshwater, to date, it was believed that female eel can be matured only in seawater. Here we show that the process of sexual maturation may be induced in freshwater by treating female eels with carp pituitary (GSI = 9.87±1.55%). It is thus proposed that seawater condition is not an obligatory environment for stimulating gametogenesis and for artificial maturation of the European eel in neither gender.
Authors:G. Szabó, T. Müller, M. Bercsényi, B. Urbányi, B. Kucska, and Á. Horváth
Experiments were carried out on the sperm cryopreservation of artificially induced eels. The effects of several extenders and two cryoprotectants on the motility of spermatozoa were investigated. The highest post-thaw motility was observed with the combination of Tanaka's extender and DMSO as cryoprotectant. Further dilution after thawing resulted in complete loss of motility in samples frozen in presence of DMSO while sperm frozen with methanol as cryoprotectant retained its motility after further dilution.
Authors:T. Müller, F. Baska, F. Niklesz, P. Horn, B. Váradi, and M. Bercsényi
The artificial induction of sexual maturation of European eel males was carried out by using weekly hCG administrations. Histological pictures showed that the testis tissues developed and regressed naturally and no pathological changes took place under the conditions of artificial rearing in freshwater. According to light and electron microscopic investigations the morphology and motility of the spermatozoa of males kept in freshwater proved to be similar to those in seawater. The authors suppose that freshwater rearing of males is not a barrier factor in the artificial propagation of European eels.
Authors:T. Müller, T. Molnár, A. Szabó, E. Yamaha, Éva Járási, M. Bercsényi, A. Specziár, B. Urbányi, and R. Romvári
The present study aimed in vivo tracking of maturation of male eel by computed tomography (CT). Additionally, individually monitored testes sizes were correlated with the conventionally used external maturity indicators (i.e. eye and nose indexes) in order to test and improve their usefulness at individual level. Testes could be clearly identified with the CT from the end of the third week of hCG administration routinely used to induce maturation in fish. The volume of testes increased exponentially during hormone treatment, and by the end of the sixth week of maturation procedure all males produced motilable spermatozoa. Present results prove that testes size can noninvasively be monitored with CT from maturity level where testes size rich 3000 mm3 volume. Eye and nose indexes are in close correlation with testes volume and thus can also be effectively used to monitor maturaty level of male eel, but preferably only at stock level. However, due to their high individual variability, these indexes can be applied only with caution at individual level and should be supplemented with other noninvasive techniques such as CT.
Authors:Á. Staszny, Enikő Havas, R. Kovács, B. Urbányi, G. Paulovits, Dóra Bencsik, Á. Ferincz, T. Müller, A. Specziár, Katalin Bakos, and Zs. Csenki
Intraspecific morphological variability may reflect either genetic divergence among groups of individuals or response of individuals to environmental circumstances within the frame of phenotypic plasticity. Several studies were able to discriminate wild fish populations based on their scale shape. Here we examine whether the variations in the scale shape in fish populations could be related to genetic or environmental factors, or to both of them. In the first experiment, two inbred lines of zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822) reared under identical environmental conditions were compared. Secondly, to find out what effect environmental factors might have, offsprings were divided into two groups and reared on different diets for 12 weeks. Potential recovery of scales from an environmental effect was also assessed. Experimental groups could successfully be distinguished according to the shape of scales in both experiments, and the results showed that both genetic and environmental factors may notably influence scale shape. It was concluded that scale shape analysis might be used as an explanatory tool to detect potential variability of environmental influences impacting genetically homogeneous groups of fish. However, due to its sensitivity to environmental heterogeneity, the applicability of this technique in identifying intraspecific stock membership of fish could be limited.