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Epipactis albensis Nováková et Rydlo (Orchidaceae), a species previously undocumented in the flora of Ukraine, was found in three localities in this country (in vicinity of Chetfalva, Fanchykovo and Drotyntsi, Zakarpattia district) in 2012. The species (originally described from the Czech Republic) recently has only been known to exist in seven Central European countries. The three Ukrainian populations described here stretch within the floodplain of river Tisza. Based on measurements in 14 localities in Hungary, Ukraine and Romania the species has a considerably wide soil reaction tolerance (from 3.6 to 7.2 pHKCl). The fruit set of this strictly autogamous species is reasonably high (78%). The mean±SD thousand seed weight of the species was 0.0030±0.0005 grams, therefore E. albenis is classified into the hypermeichor seed-weight class. Recent discoveries of the species in Romania and Ukraine raise the possibility of its occurrence in further European countries.

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The paper presents the results of a long-term monitoring of bacterial diseases of wheat in the steppe zone of the Southern Ural. A clear domination of the genus Xanthomonas over the genus Pseudomonas has been revealed (60 and 11% of the total samples collected, respectively). The frequency of a winter wheat infection with these two pathogens exceeded that of the spring wheat. The field phytosanitary assessment resulted in the observation of the earlier unknown manifestation of the Xanthomonas infection called as tip bacteriosis.

The frequency of wheat infection with Xanthomonas sp. almost did not depend on the relief type, observation period, and sowing date, though the frequency of infection observed for the northern slope and lowland clearly exceeded those observed for other relief types. The frequency of infection with Pseudomonas sp. clearly depended on the sowing date and local relief type reaching the maximum at the lowlands (19–27%), so this relief type can be considered as a “signal” point for the early diagnostics of this pathogen.

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The taxonomy of the genus Bulbocodium , in which two European species, a smaller eastern (B. versicolor) and a more robust western (B. vernum) are included, has been controversial since the description of the eastern species in 1821. Nuclear encoded ribosomal DNA ITS1 and the entire chloroplast DNA ITS were sequenced from several European populations, from France to the Ukraine, and the leaf width of mature living individuals was measured and analysed by ANOVA and Tukey-test. Although the studied DNA regions proved to be invariable, leaf width shows extreme variability. We found no correlation between the leaf size of the individuals and the geographical position of the populations, and in addition, the sequenced DNA regions showed total uniformity. Thus, our results do not support the division of the genus Bulbocodium into two taxa, at least in the sampled area. The formerly described size variants can be treated taxonomically at the forma level.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: T. Nagy, K. Nótári, A. Takács, T. Malkócs, J. Tökölyi, and A. Molnár V.

The rare, fully mycoheterotrophic Ghost Orchid, Epipogium aphyllum is only visible during its short flowering and fruiting season, which lasts for a few weeks between May and October. Due to the apparent unpredictability of its flowering, decades may pass between subsequent observations at the same locality. The factors affecting timing of flowering in this enigmatic species remain largely unexplored. In Hungary, it is an extremely rare species: between 1924 and 2014 only 25 dated observations from 15 locations are known. Hungary is located on the edge of the species’ distribution area where higher precipitation may occur only in higher regions of mountains. Hence, the spatial and temporal pattern of precipitation might limit the emergence of generative shoots. In this paper we compared rainfall patterns in relation with the Ghost Orchids’ observations to multiannual precipitation averages. The year of flowering and the month preceding flowering (but not the year before flowering and the month of flowering) were characterised by significantly more rainfall than the multi-annual average precipitation. These results suggest that the appearance of the species in Hungary is precipitation-dependent.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: A. P. Glinushkin, O. O. Beloshapkina, A. A. Solovykh, V. S. Lukyantsev, A. A. Batmanova, G. V. Sudarenkov, and J. Molnár

The identification of pathogenic agents isolated from infected wheat seeds and plants, collected in the Southern Ural and characterized by an atypical manifestation of bacterial infection (yellow leaf tips), has been carried out by direct microbiological and molecular methods. In addition, an indirect identification by the hypersensitive reaction (HR) approach has been performed simultaneously with the pathogenicity assessment of isolates using an indicator plant Plectranthus australis R. Br. Isolated samples have been microbiologically identified as Xanthomonas sp. According to the results of the PCR identification with species-specific primers, isolated samples represent Xanthomonas translucens; the reliability of the obtained results is corroborated by the hypersensitive reaction approach used also to assess the pathogenicity of isolates. Winter wheat, especially cv. Pionerskaya 23, where both X. translucens and Pantoea agglomerans were found, suffered more severe symptoms than spring wheat that was only affected by strains of X. translucens. To improve the reliability of the primary diagnostics of a bacterial character of seed infection, the provoking of the pathogen development by temperature or pH stress is proposed.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: Cs. Molnár, Zs. Molnár, Z. Barina, N. Bauer, M. Biró, L. Bodonczi, A. Csathó, J. Csiky, J. Deák, G. Fekete, K. Harmos, A. Horváth, I. Isépy, M. Juhász, J. Kállayné Szerényi, G. Király, G. Magos, A. Máté, A. Mesterházy, A. Molnár, J. Nagy, M. Óvári, D. Purger, D. Schmidt, G. Sramkó, V. Szénási, F. Szmorad, Gy. Szollát, T. Tóth, T. Vidra, and V. Virók

The first version of the map of the Hungarian vegetation-based landscape regions were prepared at the scale of 1: 200,000 (1 km or higher resolution). The primary goal of the map was to provide an exact background for the presentation and evaluation of the data of the MÉTA database. Secondly, we intended to give an up-to-date and detailed vegetation-based division of Hungary with a comprehensive nomenclature of the regions. Regions were primarily defined on the basis of their present zonal vegetation, or their dominant extrazonal or edaphic vegetation. Where this was not possible, abiotic factors that influence the potential vegetation, the flora were taken into consideration, thus, political and economical factors were ignored. All region borders were defined by local expert botanists, mainly based on their field knowledge. The map differs in many features from the currently used, country-wide, flora-or geography-based divisions in many features. We consider our map to be temporary (i.e. a work map), and we plan to refine and improve it after 5 years of testing.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: P. Török, T. Miglécz, O. Valkó, K. Tóth, A. Kelemen, Á.-J. Albert, G. Matus, A. Molnár V, E. Ruprecht, L. Papp, B. Deák, O. Horváth, A. Takács, B. Hüse, and B. Tóthmérész

In the present paper we report original thousand-seed weight data for the flora of the Pannonian Basin. Our goal was to demonstrate the usefulness of seed weight databases by analysing seed weight data in relation to social behaviour types and life forms. We specifically asked the following questions: (i) how the seed weights are related to social behaviour type categories; (ii) how the life form of the species influences seed weight differences between respective social behaviour types? Own weight measurements are provided for 1,405 taxa; and for 187 taxa we published seed weight data for the first time: these were mostly endemics, orchids and/or species with Pontic, Caspian or continental distribution. Several taxonomic or functional groups are underrepresented in our database, like aquatic plants, rare arable weeds and sub-Mediterranean species. Problematic taxa, some difficult-to-harvest species or species with low seed production and cultivated adventives are also underrepresented. We found that the plant strategies expressed by social behaviour types were significantly different in terms of seed weights. The lowest seed weight scores were found for natural pioneers, whereas the highest ones were found for adventives and introduced cultivated plants. Short-lived herbaceous species had significantly higher seed weight scores than herbaceous perennials. No significant differences were found between specialists and generalists within the stress tolerant group. We found that short-lived graminoids possess heavier seeds than perennial graminoids, perennial and annual forbs. Naturalness scores were negatively correlated with seed weights. Our findings showed that seed collections and databases are not only for storing plant material and seed weight data, but can be effectively used for understanding ecological trends and testing plant trait-based hypotheses. Even the identified gaps underline the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: P. Török, E. Tóth, K. Tóth, O. Valkó, B. Deák, B. Kelbert, P. Bálint, Sz. Radócz, A. Kelemen, J. Sonkoly, T. Miglécz, G. Matus, A. Takács, V. A. Molnár, K. Süveges, L. Papp, L. Papp Jr., Z. Tóth, B. Baktay, G. Málnási Csizmadia, I. Oláh, E. Peti, J. Schellenberger, O. Szalkovszki, R. Kiss, and B. TÓthmérész

For understanding local and regional seed dispersal and plant establishment processes and for considering the ecotypes and other forms of specific variability, hard data of locally or regionally measured traits are necessary. We provided newly measured seed weight data of 193 taxa, out of which 24 taxa had not been represented in the SID, LEDA or BiolFlor databases. Our new measurements and formerly published data of locally collected seed weight records together covers over 70% of the Pannonian flora. However, there is still a considerable lack in seed weight data of taxonomically problematic genera, even though they are represented in the Pannonian flora with a relatively high number of species and/or subspecies (e.g. Sorbus, Rosa, Rubus, Crataegus and Hieracium). Our regional database contains very sporadic data on aquatic plants (including also numerous invasive species reported from Hungary and neighbouring countries) and some rare weeds distributed in the southwestern part of the country. These facts indicate the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.

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