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Background and aims

Mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) has been applied in behavioral addiction studies in recent years. However, few empirical studies using MBI have been conducted for smartphone addiction, which is prevalent among Chinese university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a group mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (GMCI) on smartphone addiction in a sample of Chinese university students.

Methods

Students with smartphone addiction were divided into a control group (n = 29) and an intervention group (n = 41). The students in the intervention group received an 8-week GMCI. Smartphone addiction was evaluated using scores from the Mobile Phone Internet Addiction Scale (MPIAS) and self-reported smartphone use time, which were measured at the baseline (1st week, T1), post-intervention (8th week, T2), the first follow-up (14th week, T3), and the second follow-up (20th week, T4).

Results

Twenty-seven students in each group completed the intervention and the follow-up. Smartphone use time and MPIAS scores significantly decreased from T1 to T3 in the intervention group. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had significantly less smartphone use time at T2, T3, and T4 and significantly lower MPIAS scores at T3.

Discussion and conclusion

This pilot study demonstrated that the GMCI could significantly alleviate smartphone addiction among university students.

Open access

Background and aims

This large-scale study aimed to test (a) associations of problematic Internet use (PIU) and sleep disturbance with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents and (b) whether sleep disturbance mediates the association between PIU and suicidal behavior.

Methods

Data were drawn from the 2017 National School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey. A total of 20,895 students’ questionnaires were qualified for analysis. The Young’s Internet Addiction Test was used to assess PIU, and level of sleep disturbance was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multilevel logistic regression models and path models were utilized in analyses.

Results

Of the total sample, 2,864 (13.7%) reported having suicidal ideation, and 537 (2.6%) reported having suicide attempts. After adjusting for control variables and sleep disturbance, PIU was associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.03−1.04) and suicide attempts (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.02−1.04). Findings of the path models showed that the standardized indirect effects of PIU on suicidal ideation (standardized β estimate = 0.092, 95% CI = 0.082−0.102) and on suicide attempts (standardized β estimate = 0.082, 95% CI = 0.068−0.096) through sleep disturbance were significant. Conversely, sleep disturbance significantly mediated the association of suicidal behavior on PIU.

Discussion and conclusions

There may be a complex transactional association between PIU, sleep disturbance, and suicidal behavior. The estimates of the mediator role of sleep disturbance provide evidence for the current understanding of the mechanism of the association between PIU and suicidal behavior. Possible concomitant treatment services for PIU, sleep disturbance, and suicidal behavior were recommended.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Shan-Shan Ma, Patrick D. Worhunsky, Jian-song Xu, Sarah W. Yip, Nan Zhou, Jin-Tao Zhang, Lu Liu, Ling-Jiao Wang, Ben Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Sheng Zhang, and Xiao-Yi Fang

Background

Cue-induced brain reactivity has been suggested to be a fundamental and important mechanism explaining the development, maintenance, and relapse of addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Altered activity in addiction-related brain regions has been found during cue-reactivity in IGD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but less is known regarding the alterations of coordinated whole brain activity patterns in IGD.

Methods

To investigate the activity of temporally coherent, large-scale functional brain networks (FNs) during cue-reactivity in IGD, independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data from 29 male subjects with IGD and 23 matched healthy controls (HC) performing a cue-reactivity task involving Internet gaming stimuli (i.e., game cues) and general Internet surfing-related stimuli (i.e., control cues).

Results

Four FNs were identified that were related to the response to game cues relative to control cues and that showed altered engagement/disengagement in IGD compared with HC. These FNs included temporo-occipital and temporo-insula networks associated with sensory processing, a frontoparietal network involved in memory and executive functioning, and a dorsal-limbic network implicated in reward and motivation processing. Within IGD, game versus control engagement of the temporo-occipital and frontoparietal networks were positively correlated with IGD severity. Similarly, disengagement of temporo-insula network was negatively correlated with higher game-craving.

Discussion

These findings are consistent with altered cue-reactivity brain regions reported in substance-related addictions, providing evidence that IGD may represent a type of addiction. The identification of the networks might shed light on the mechanisms of the cue-induced craving and addictive Internet gaming behaviors.

Open access