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Abstract  

When ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, EVA, is heated, a two-stage thermal degradation occurs following its melting. The vinyl acetate content of the copolymer was determined to be 43.8% by using TA 2950 and TA 2050 thermogravimetric instruments. TG/FTIR was used to detect the evolved gas. Acetic acid and trans-1-R-4-R'-cyclohexane were the main products evolved from EVA in the first and second stage, respectively. The apparent activation energies were determined for both stages by differential methods.

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Summary

Yanghuo Sanqi tablet (YST), combined prescription mainly derived from the leaves of herba epimedii and the roots of Panax notoginseng, is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Flavonoids (icarrin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and baohuoside I) and saponins (notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rgl, and ginsenoside Rbl) are considered as the main bioactive compounds of YST. However, there is no report on quality control of TCMs by simultaneous determination of above-mentioned flavonoids and saponins so far. In this work, for the first time, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method was developed to evaluate the quality of YST through a simultaneous determination of five major active flavonoids and three main saponins. Optimum separations were obtained with a Zorbax SB-C18 column by gradient elution with acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase. The drift tube temperature of ELSD was set at 105 °C, and the nebulizing gas flow rate was 2.5 L min−1. The fully validated method was successfully applied to quantify the eight bioactive components in three lot products. This simple, low-cost, and reliable HPLC-DAD-ELSD method provided a new basis for assessing the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal compound preparations (TCMCPs) consisting of many bioactive components.

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Summary

Yanghuo Sanqi tablet (YST), combined prescription mainly derived from the leaves of Herba epimedii and the roots of Panax notoginseng, is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Flavonoids (icarrin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and baohuoside I) and saponins (notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rgl, and ginsenoside Rbl) are considered as the main bioactive compounds of YST. However, there is no report on quality control of TCMs by simultaneous determination of above-mentioned flavonoids and saponins so far. In this work, for the first time, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method was developed to evaluate the quality of YST through a simultaneous determination of five major active flavonoids and three main saponins. Optimum separations were obtained with a Zorbax SB-C18 column by gradient elution with acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase. The drift tube temperature of ELSD was set at 105 °C, and the nebulizing gas flow rate was 2.5 L min−1. The fully validated method was successfully applied to quantify the eight bioactive components in three lot products. This simple, low-cost, and reliable HPLC-DAD-ELSD method provided a new basis for assessing the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal compound preparations (TCMCPs) consisting of many bioactive components.

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Abstract  

A simple operation mode to determine the apparent activation energy E a is introduced. E a can be determined with a double-curve method by using a constant reaction rate (CRR) approach of Hi-Res TG. The most appropriate mechanism function f(α) and frequency factor A are determined by a single-curve method when the activation energies provided by the two methods are in good agreement with each other. The deacetylation of EVA copolymer has been used for illustration. Advantages of the CRR are discussed.

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Summary

Silica-gel column chromatography and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were sequentially employed for the isolation of two antioxidants including gallic acid and methyl gallate from Folium Toonea Sinensis. An RP-HPLC-UV method was then developed and validated to rapidly determine their content in this herb with ethyl gallate as internal standard. The quantitation was performed on an XBridge Shield RP18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) under 40°C. The mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution was driven at 1.0 mL min−1 under gradient elution, and 270 nm was selected to monitor the separation. To evaluate the fitness for purpose of the method and to investigate the difference in the content of analytes among different samples, the leaves collected from five production sites were analyzed. The newly established method is suitable for routine analysis of gallic acid and methyl gallate in the herb and, hence, can assist in its quality assessment. It was also found that not only the content of two antioxidants but also the ratio varied significantly among different geographical origins. In addition, three samples from Yantai, Zumadian, and Zhenjiang were distinguished as they have a much higher content ratio than the other two.

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Summary

The ripe fruits of Schisandrae chinensis have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diseases and improve health. There is substantial evidence that lignan constituents are mainly responsible for the beneficial effects of this plant medicine. The amounts of the major bioactive lignans in this plant vary widely with species, habitat, and the collecting time, and as such, establishment of an HPLC fingerprint for quality control of this herbal medicine is of particular importance. To achieve this, ten batches of Fructus schisandrae chinensis were collected from Tieli, in China, and their chemical components were analyzed under optimized HPLC conditions. On the basis of the chromatographic data, a consistent HPLC fingerprint pattern containing 20 common peaks was obtained. Among these common peaks, six were identified as schizandrin, schizandrol B, schisantherin, deoxyschiandrin, γ-schizandrin B, and schizandrin C. On the basis of this HPLC fingerprint and principal-components analysis, the quality of fifteen samples from different producing areas of China was objectively assessed, and the species difference between Fructus schisandrae sphenantherae and Fructus schisandrae chinensis was clearly differentiated. To summarize, the data described in this study offer valuable information for quality control and proper use of Fructus schisandrae chinensis.

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