A three-dimensional leaching model was developed to describe the leaching of radionuclide from a cement-based concrete solid. The film mass transfer and interparticle diffusion were considered simultaneously. On the basis of the derived model the long-term behavior of radium-226 leaching from the waste solid has been quantitatively investigated.
Authors:S. Yang, X. Chen, P. Zhen, Q. Ye, X. Xie, and W. Liu
A simple and rapid HPLC method using a photodiode array (PDA) detector for the analysis of 3-hydroxycarboplatin and its related complex has been established for the first time. Separation of 3-hydroxycarboplatin and 3-hydroxy-1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (3-HO-cbdca) was carried out on a Phenomenex ODS3 column using an aqueous solution containing 50 mM ammonium acetate and 5 mM sodium 1-octanesulfonate as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.8 mL min−1, the column temperature was 40°C, and the detection wavelength was 230 nm for 3-hydroxycarboplatin and 220 nm for 3-HO-cbdca. Different analytical performance parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, stability of the solution, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and system suitability were determined using the Empower 2 software. The calibration curve of standard 3-hydroxycarboplatin showed good linearity (r = 0.9995) within the range 0.5–1.4 mg mL−1. The method was accurate and precise, with an average accuracy of 100.4% (RSD = 1.53%, n = 9), and the results of the system suitability test showed symmetrical peaks, good resolution (Rs), and repeatability. It can be applied to the quality control of 3-hydroxycarboplatin.
Authors:Y. P. Liu, Y. Y. Di, W. Y. Dan, D. H. He, Y. X. Kong, and W. W. Yang
Dodecylamine hydrochloride C12H25NH3·Cl(s) and bis-dodecylammonium tetrachlorozincate (C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4(s) were synthesized by the method of liquid phase reaction. The constant-volume energy of combustion of dodecylamine hydrochloride was measured by means of a RBC-II precision rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter at T = (298.15 ± 0.001) K. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of C12H25NH3·Cl(s) was calculated to be
(C12H25NH3·Cl, s) = −(706.79 ± 3.97) kJ mol−1 from the constant-volume energy of combustion. In accordance with Hess’ law, a reasonable thermochemical cycle was designed and the enthalpy change of the synthesis reaction of the complex (C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4(s) was determined by use of an isoperibol solution-reaction calorimeter. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of (C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4(s) was calculated as
[(C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4, s] = −(1862.14 ± 7.95) kJ mol−1 from the standard molar enthalpy of formation of C12H25NH3·Cl(s) and other auxiliary thermodynamic data.
Authors:Y. Xu, S. Zhang, H. Ding, X. Lu, W. Yang, S. Yuan, Y. Xiao, and Y. Niu
The neutron-rich target-like isotope 236Th has been produced in the 238U-2p multinucleon transfer reaction between a 60 MeV/u 18O beam and natural 238U targets. The activities of thorium were determined after radiochemical separation of Th from the mixture of uranium and
reaction products. The 236Th isotope was identified by the characteristic γ-rays of 642.2, 687.6 and 229.6 keV. The production cross section of 236Th was determined to be 250±50 μb.
Authors:H. Ding, Y. Niu, Y. Xu, W. Yang, S. Yuan, Z. Qin, and X. Wu
Solvent extraction of protactinium with tri-iso-octyl-amine (TIOA) in xylene, benzene, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform
from HCl, HF, HNO3, HClO4 and H2SO4 media was studied using 233Pa as a radiotracer. The extraction efficiencies of protactinium were determined as a function of shaking time, concentrations
of mineral acids in aqueous phase, extractant concentrations and diluents in organic phase. The extraction mechanism was discussed.
The results show that the extracted species in the organic phase is [(R3N−H)nPa(OH)xCl
Authors:Y. Xu, W. Yang, S. Yuan, Y. Xiao, X. Zhou, and J. He
Osmium isotope, 197Os, produced with 14 MeV neutrons through the reaction of 198Pt(n,2p)197Os, has been identified and its decay properties have been studied with a g(X) spectroscopic method. The ten new g-rays of 41.2, 50.7, 196.8, 199.6, 223.9, 233.1, 250.2, 342.1, 403.6, and 406.4 keV assigned to the decay of 197Os were observed. The half-life of 197Os has been determined as 2.8±0.6 minutes. A partial decay scheme of 197Os was proposed.
Authors:H. Li, X. Yang, W. Tomes, Wei-Ping Pan, and J. T. Riley
The objective of this study was to examine the possible formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of blends of refuse derived fuels (RDF) and coal under conditions similar to those of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. A series of experiments were conducted using a TG interfaced to FTIR. Additional experiments using a tube furnace preheated to AFBC operating temperatures were also conducted. The combustion products were cryogenically trapped and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The chlorination of phenols and the condensation reactions of chlorophenols were investigated in this study. A possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, by chlorination and condensation reactions involving phenols, was proposed.
Authors:W.-Y. Liu, X.-J. Yang, P. Li, F. Feng, and L.-Sh. Mao
10-O-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-ginkgolide B (XQ-1) is an intermediate for synthesizing 10-O-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-ginkgolide B methanesulfonate (XQ-1H), which is a novel ginkgolide B derivative and is being developed as a platelet-activating factor antagonist. A specific and rapid liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative analysis of XQ-1 and its three related impurities, which were 10-O-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-11,12-seco-ginkgolide B (imp-1), 10-O-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-11,12-seco-3,14-dehydroginkgolide B (imp-2) and 10-O-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-3,14-dehydroginkgolide B (imp-3) simultaneously in XQ-1 samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a CN band stationary phase, with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 20 mM dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (pH 7.5) (50:50, υ/υ) in isocratic elution. The flow rate was 1.0 mL min−1 and detector was set at 220 nm. The method was optimized by the analysis of the samples generated during the forced degradation studies. The XQ-1, imp-1, imp-2, and imp-3 were completely separated within 15 min. The resolutions (Rs) amongst four target compounds were >2. The developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. The results indicated that the simultaneous LC determination method was readily utilized as a quality control method for XQ-1 sample.
Authors:S.T. Yang, X. Wu, W. Rui, J. Guo, and Y.F. Feng
A rapid method has been used for simultaneous identification of both hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM, the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza BGE.) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-offlight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). A total of 58 compounds extracted by methanol were detected and tentatively identified within 20 min, including hydrophilic phenolics, lipophilic diterpenoids, a verbascose, and several organic acids. These compounds were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column and identified based on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation patterns under the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Among them, micranthin B and 9-oxo-10E,12Zoctadecadienoic acid were reported in RSM for the first time. Their fragmentation patterns in electrospray ionization (ESI)—MS/MS spectra were first investigated by matching their accurate molecular masses. This contribution presented one of the first reports on the analysis of hydrophilic phenolics and lipophilic diterpenoids from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae using UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The results demonstrated that UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method could be applied to rapidly and expediently describe and provide comprehensive chemical information for simultaneous analysis of two different polar components in RSM.
Authors:H. J. Ding, Y. N. Niu, Y. B. Xu, W. F. Yang, S. G. Yuan, Z. Qin, and X. H. Zhou
extraction of protactinium with Aliquat 336 (methyl-tri-caprylyl ammonium
chloride) in toluene, cyclohexane and chloroform from HCl, HNO3, H2SO4,
HClO4, HF and mixed HCl-HF media was investigated by radioactive
tracer technique. Distribution ratios of protactinium between the aqueous
solution and the organic phase were determined as a function of shaking time,
concentrations of acid in aqueous solution phase, extractant concentration and
type of diluents in the organic phase. Aliquat 336 can almost quantitatively
extract protactinium from strong HCl solution. At the same time, small amounts
of HF in HCl solutions have a strong effect on Pa distribution.