Chromium is one of the most difficult elements to accurately determine at the naturally occuring, ultratrace levels normally found in uncontaminated biological samples. In view of the importance of Cr, both as an essential and as a toxic element, efforts have focused on developing a simple, yet reliable, radiochemical procedure for Cr determination using neutron activation analysis. A number of problem areas have been identified in earlier methods, and an improved radiochemical separation procedure, based upon the liquid/liquid extraction of Cr(VI) into a solution of tribenzylamine/chloroform, has been developed. The fast neutron interference from Fe has been evaluated for the highly thermal RT-4 facility of the NBS Research Reactor, and Cr concentrations have been determined in samples of whole human blood collected under clean conditions and in two certified reference materials.
Several bioanalytical techniques have been employed in conjunction with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to study metalloproteins and protein-bound trace elements in bovine kidneys. The accuracy of the INAA method developed has been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials. Up to 29 elements can be reliably determined in biological tissue samples by INAA. Dialysis of the bovine kidney homogenate shows that more than 90% of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se, V and Zn, and about 20% of Br are bound to macromolecules, mainly proteins. A combination of gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography, chromatofocusing, electrofocusing, ammonium sulphate precipitation and INAA of the bovine kidney microsomecytosol subcellular fraction further indicates that much of the copper is associated with a single protein of an isoelectric point around 5 and a molecular weight of about 30 000 daltons. Some results on manganese proteins are also reported.
Multielement determinations in the certified reference materials of soils (IAEA soil-5 and 7) have been studied fundamentally by instrumental photon activation analysis using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method. For the soil-5 sample, in the first place, the qualities of the comparative standards prepared by two processing methods were compared with each other. As a result, it was demonstrated that a highly accurate and precise multielement determination can be achieved easily by minor improvement in the processing method of the comparative standard to ensure homogeneity. The utility of this processing method for soil samples was proved further through a similar analysis in another soil sample (IAEA soil-7).
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods have been developed for the simultaneous determinations of multielement concentrations in various types of glass and their leachates. The epithermal instrumental NAA (EINAA) method involves the irradiation of samples in a Cd-shielded site for 2–5 min in order to determine levels of of up to 13 elements through their short-lived nuclides. Another 15 elements can be measured via their long-lived nuclides using conventional instrumental NAA (INAA). Accuracy of the methods have been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials. The limits of detection for all elements are reported. The methods have been applied to sodium borosilicate and sodium calcium aluminosilicate glass samples in order evaluate their suitability as a host matrix for immobilizing high level radioactive waste.
A new method for the selective radiochemical separation of cadmium from other elements, present in biological materials, using amphoteric ion exchange resin Retardion 11A8 has been elaborated. Cadmium can be taken up by the resin either as anionic chloride complexes or cationic ammine complexes, depending on the composition of the eluent, exploiting both cation and anion exchange functions of the ion exchanger. The conditions in which Cd is quantitatively retained and eluted from Retardion 11A8 were established. The method of selective isolation of cadmium was further used for the determination of Cd in three biological certified reference materials by neutron activation analysis. Analytical results obtained with the use of the proposed separation procedure show good agreement with the certified values.
A new, very accurate (definitive) method for the determination of trace amounts of cobalt in biological materials has been devised. The method is based on combination of neutron irradiation with quantitative and selective post-irradiation separation of cobalt from all accompanying radionuclides followed by measurement by -ray spectrometry. Column chromatography in which owing to addition of Co carrier the course of separation can be followed visually is the key element of the separation scheme. Several criteria have been formulated which must be simultaneously fulfilled in order to acknowledge the result as obtained by a definitive method. The high accuracy of the method has been demonstrated by the analysis of several certified reference materials of widely different Co contents.
Authors:R. Dybczyński, M. Wasek, and H. Maleszewska
A highly accurate and precise procedure deserving the name of definitive method has been devised for the determination of copper in biological materials. The method is based on combination of neutron activation and very selective and quantitative post-irradiation separation of copper from other radionuclides by extraction chromatography, using columns with LIX 70 on Bio-Beads SM-1, followed by gamma-ray spectrometric measurement. All potential sources of errors were carefully examined and eliminated or appropriate corrections were introduced into the procedure. The method contains several warning mechanisms safeguarding against making gross errors. Limit of detection for rather short irradiation time (tir
1 h) (which enables radiochemical work without sophisticated shielding) amounts to 15 g/kg. Results for copper concentration in several NBS, IAEA and other certified reference materials are presented and a new recommended value for IAEA's Milk Powder (A-11) is proposed.
Authors:John Bennett, Peter Grave, and Attila Stopic
The k0-method of standardisation for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used at the OPAL research reactor
to determine the elemental composition of three certified reference materials: coal fly ash (SRM 1633b), brick clay (SRM 679)
and Montana soil (SRM 2711). Of the 41 certified elements in the three materials, 88 percent were within five percent of the
certified values and all determinations were within 15 percent of the certified values. The average difference between the
measured and certified values was 0.1 percent, with a standard deviation of 4.1 percent. Since these reference materials are
widely used as standards in the analysis of archaeological ceramics by INAA, it has been concluded that the INAA facility
in Australia is particularly well-suited for nuclear archaeometry.
Authors:Yong Chung, Sun Kim, Gwang Sun, Jong Lim, Jong Moon, Kye Lee, Young Kim, Jong Choi, and Ju Lee
The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition
as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements.
Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a
fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using
instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical
quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward
the identification of irradiated foods.
A method for the determination of trace amounts of Mo, Cd, Co and Cr in biological materials by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation is presented. The method is based on the ion-exchange scheme developed by SAMSAHL, where Co and Cr are trapped on BioRad Chelex-100 and Cd and Mo on BioRad AG2X8. The elements Mo, Cd and Co can be determined without systematic errors. For the element chromium the situation is less clear, partially due to lack of sufficient certified reference materials for Cr. The method has been used in the characterization of candidate reference materials. Detection limits in these materials range from 1.5 g/kg for Co to 10 g/kg for Cr. Actual levels as low as 8 g/kg for Cd and 7 g/kg for Co were measured.