The accuracy and precision of the results obtained for total mercury in various environmental and biological samples and certified
reference materials (CRMs) by various analytical methods, including k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and cold vapour atomic absorption (and atomic fluorescence) spectrometry
(CVAAS/AFS) used in routine analysis in our laboratory, were investigated. Three natural matrix reference materials (RMs)
from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), five CRMs from the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements
(IRMM), six CRMs from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and one from the Jožef Stefan Institute (IJS)
were analyzed. The results obtained show good agreement between certified or assigned values, and between the methods used,
except for some data obtained by k0-INAA in biological samples. This can be explained by losses during irradiation in semi-open systems (irradiation in plastic
ampoules) and/or spectral interferences.
Authors:M. Menezes, C. Sabino, M. Franco, G. Kastner, and E. Rossi
Since 1995 the k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied at Radiochemical Laboratory, CDTN/CNEN, Brazil, by means of TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor. At that time , f, and Tn were determined and the most recent determination of these parameters confirmed the great stability of the reactor along these years. In order to verify the efficiency and accuracy of the method, several certified reference materials have been systematically analyzed. Participating in Intercomparison Exercises organized by IAEA has been an important, essential and useful procedure to quality control. CDTN is the only Brazilian Institute to apply the k0-INAA to determine elements by means of their isotopes through short, medium and long half life using its own nuclear reactor.
Authors:E. G. Moreira, M. B. A. Vasconcellos, and M. Saiki
Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to evaluate the chemical composition of metallic materials, namely iron, steel, silicon and ferrosilicon certified reference materials. As, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, V and W concentrations were analyzed in the iron and steel samples whereas 21 elements were determined in silicon and ferrosilicon samples. Accuracy and precision results of about 10% were achieved for most elements, indicating that the technique is suitable for the analysis of metallic materials. Interferences of Cr and Mn in V; Fe and Co in Mn; Co in Fe and Cr in Ti were quantified and only the last one was critical to the analysis of the materials employed in this work.
Foods collected for radionuclide analysis under the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Total Diet Study (TDS) Program were analyzed by the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) as quality assurance (QA) for analyses performed at FDA's Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center (WEAC). 200-ml QA portions were analyzed for gamma-ray emitting fission products and naturally occurring radionuclides. Efficiency, pileup correction, absorption effects, and accuracy were determined by analyzing a variety of certified reference materials and KNO3 and KCl solutions. 40K results agreed well with those from WEAC and with total K results from other techniques. Count times as low as 2 minutes were sufficient to confirm that radioactivity concentrations were below regulatory limits.
Authors:M. Alamin, A. Mhapes, A. Bejey, A. Sadek, R. Atweer, K. Dubali, and Daw Saad
Since there is no database in Libya defining the intake of the individuals from different essential (minor and trace) and
toxic elements provided through food, drinking water and aerosol, a project has been proposed with the cooperation of IAEA
to determine the concentration of a number of elements such as Cs, Fe, Cr, Rb, Sc, Se, Co, Zn in the three mentioned sources.
Emphasis was placed on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques. In this paper, the primary results are presented
for the concentration of minor and trace elements in some vegetables, spices and other foods which are widely used in the
Libyan meals. Instrumental neutron activation analysis utilizing a 10 MW water pool reactor and a γ-ray spectroscopy facility
was employed. For quality control, certified reference materials were analyzed simultaneosly with the samples which show good
agreements compared with the certified data. Emphasis was given to both elements iron and zinc for their importance.
Authors:I. Abugassa, Y. Khrbish, S. Abugassa, N. Ben Faid, A. Bashir, and S. Sarmani
The paper focuses on the validation of the k0-method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA) in the Tajura Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) via the analysis of several certified reference materials. The selected
reference materials were: SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves, SRM 1575 Pine Needles, IAEA-A11 Milk Powder, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder, RM IAEA-Soil-7
and RM IAEA-SL-1 Lake Sediment. The method is based on the PC version Kayzero/Solcoi software package issued by DSM. All the
samples, reference materials and monitors were irradiated in various positions of the Tajura reactor with different f and α. The parameters f and α (f — thermal/epithermal neutron flux ratio, α — parameter accounting for the non-ideality of the 1/E epithermal neutron fluence rate distribution) were determined using the bare triple monitor method. The results obtained
for all the reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values.
Authors:Katarzyna Drozdzewska, V. Kestens, A. Held, G. Roebben, and T. Linsinger
The application of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for purity determination is well documented in literature and is
used amongst others in the analysis of pure organic crystalline compounds. The aim of this work is to examine whether the
DSC method for purity determination consistently produces values for the purity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
which are sufficiently accurate as required for the certification of reference materials. For this purpose, 34 different existing
PAH certified reference materials were tested. The DSC results are shown to be consistent with the results obtained by other
methods assessing the organic impurities content in PAHs, like gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Significant differences between the measured values and the certified purity values were observed
only in a limited number of cases.
Authors:John Bennett, Peter Grave, and Attila Stopic
The k0-method of standardisation for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used at the OPAL research reactor
to determine the elemental composition of three certified reference materials: coal fly ash (SRM 1633b), brick clay (SRM 679)
and Montana soil (SRM 2711). Of the 41 certified elements in the three materials, 88 percent were within five percent of the
certified values and all determinations were within 15 percent of the certified values. The average difference between the
measured and certified values was 0.1 percent, with a standard deviation of 4.1 percent. Since these reference materials are
widely used as standards in the analysis of archaeological ceramics by INAA, it has been concluded that the INAA facility
in Australia is particularly well-suited for nuclear archaeometry.
Authors:Yong Chung, Sun Kim, Gwang Sun, Jong Lim, Jong Moon, Kye Lee, Young Kim, Jong Choi, and Ju Lee
The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition
as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements.
Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a
fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using
instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical
quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward
the identification of irradiated foods.
Authors:Kh. Rezaee, M. Abdi, E. Saion, K. Naghavi, and M. Shafaei
In order to complete having data base of elemental assessment of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia marine sediments along
the South China Sea coasts, trace elements are analyzed and their distribution in marine sediments is undertaken. The present
study is done parallel with pervious study on elemental assessment of heavy metals, rare earth elements and actinides in the
marine sediments of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty surface sediment samples were collected in this area, including
regions of Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Rompin and Johor Baharu. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental
neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. In both cases methodology validation
was performed by certified reference material analyses. For the surface elemental distributions the enrichment factor values,
average Igeo and mCd values indicate that the trace elements of the surface sediments are uncontaminated in all sampling stations that are consistent
with previous studies results of heavy metals, rare earth elements and actinides.