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Abstract  

The dissolution enthalpies of glycine in aqueous solutions of acetamide, N-methylacetamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, N-ethylformamide, N,N-diethylformamide and N,N-diethylacetamide were measured at 298.15 K. The enthalpic pair interaction coefficients of glycine zwitterion-amide molecules were determined by using standard solution enthalpies of glycine in water and aqueous solutions of amides. The additivity of groups concept of Savage and Wood was used to estimate the contribution of each of the functional groups of the studied amides.

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Abstract  

Inorganic arsenic, MMA, DMA and arsenobetaine (As) were separated by the use of cation and anion exchange chromatography combined with neutron activation. Two complementary approaches were used: firstly, authentic, non-irradiated arsenic compounds, either singly or in mixtures, were separated and NAA of the fractions used as an element specific detection method. Secondly, the arsenic compounds were neutron irradiated under different conditions and for different times and the products separated and quantified. The76As labeled species (mono-, di and trimethylated) were then additionally used to calibrate and improve the column separations. Using the separations developed, arsenic species in samples of shrimps and the standard reference material DORM-1 were determined, after an extraction step, using ion exchange chromatography followed by INAA of the fractions collected.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: M. Mato, S. Cebreiro, J. Legido, and M. Paz Andrade

Abstract  

Experimental excess molar volumes for the ternary system {x 1MTBE+x 21-propanol+(1–x 1x 2)nonane} and the three involved binary mixtures have been determined at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Excess molar volumes were determined from the densities of the pure liquids and mixtures, using a DMA 4500 Anton Paar densimeter. The ternary mixture shows maximum values around the binary mixture MTBE+nonane and minimum values for the mixture MTBE+propanol. The ternary contribution to the excess molar volume is negative, with the exception of a range located around the rich compositions of 1-propanol. Several empirical equations predicting ternary mixture properties from experimental binary mixtures have been applied.

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In the present study, we developed a simple, sensitive, and selective thin-layer chromatographic method for the detection and identification of amitraz using chloranil as chromogenic spray. In the first step, amitraz was hydrolized by using 10% sodium hydroxide solution in water to give dimethylaniline (DMA) and N-2,4-dimethylphenyl- N-methyl formamidine (DMPMF). The dimethylaniline further treated with chloranil in acetone gives blue spot. This spray reagent does not react with other organophosphorous, organochloro, carbamate, and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. This reagent is sensitive and selective only to amitraz. The constituents of viscera (amino acids, peptides, and proteins) do not interfere with the test. The detection limit for amitraz is about 0.7 µg.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: M. Keating, K. Gardner, H. Ng, D. Marks, W. Yung, P. Avakian, and H. Starkweather

Abstract  

Our X-ray work of Dytek-A, 2-methyl-pentamethylenediamine, containing polyamides shows polymorphism, whereas the polyamides with linear diamines do not. The polyamide of Dytek-A and dodecanedioic acid, MPMD-12, is singled out for discussion and compared with the unbranched analogs of polyamides 6,12 and 5,12. Due to the presence of the -CH3 side group in the 2-position of the diamine, the polyamide MPMD-12 exhibits two stable crystal conformations. The new δ polymorph is not seen in linear polyamides 6,12 and 5,12. Studies by DSC polyamide MPMD-12 clearly illustrates at least two crystal forms, γ and δ, coexisting over a wide temperature range, and the isolation of each phase is possible by controlling temperature and time. The DMA modulus in the temperature region between the glass transition (or alpha relaxation) and melting transition shows strong dependence on the thermal history as demonstrated in a study of crystallization kinetics.

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Abstract  

The [InCl3(L)n] (where L is 2,2′-bipyridine (bipy), 2,2′-bipyridine N,N′-dioxide (bipyNO), N,N-dimethylacetamide (dma), urea (u), thiourea (tu) or 1,1,3,3-tetramethylthiourea (tmtu); n = 1.5, 3 or 4) were synthesized and characterized by melting points, elemental analysis, thermal analysis and IR spectroscopy. The enthalpies of dissolution of the adducts, Indium(III) chloride and ligands in 1.2 M aqueous HCl were measured and by using thermochemical cycles, the following thermochemical parameters for the adducts have been determined: the standard enthalpies for the Lewis acid/base reactions (Δr H θ), the standard enthalpies of formation (Δf H θ), the lattice standard enthalpies (ΔM H θ), and the standard enthalpies of decomposition (ΔD H θ).

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Abstract  

In order to obtain the exact information of atomic number density in the ternary system of HNO3−UO2(NO3)2−H2O, the densities were measured with an Anton-Paar DMA60/602 digital density meter thermostated at 298.15±0.01 K. The apparent molal volumes for the systems were calculated from the experimental data. The present measured apparent molar volumes have been fitted to the Pitzer ion-interaction model, which provides an adequate representation of the experimental data for mixed aqueous electrolyte solutions up to 6.2 mol/kg ionic strength. This fit yields θV, and ψV, which are the first derivatives with respect to pressure of the mixing interaction parameters for the excess free energy. With the mixing parameters θV, and ψV, the densities and apparent molar volumes of the ternary system studied in this work can be calculated with good accuracy, as shown by the standard deviations.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: L. Barral, J. Cano, J. López, I. López-Bueno, P. Nogueira, C. Ramírez, A. Torres, and M. Abad

Abstract  

The effect of thermal degradation on the mechanical behaviour of a system containing both tetraglycidyl-4-4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGDDM) and a multifunctional novolac glycidyl ether (EPN) resins, cured with 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulphone (DDS) has been studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile tests. Different curing paths using the isothermal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for this system were designed, obtaining thermosetting materials with different conversions. The influences of the degree of cure and of the aging temperature were also studied. The results showed different trends in the dynamic mechanical properties and an increase in the stiffness of the material with increasing aging time. Changes were faster and more intense with the higher temperature.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Mosselmans, Monique Biesemans, R. Willem, J. Wastiels, M. Leermakers, H. Rahier, S. Brughmans, and B. Van Mele

Abstract  

The reaction of phosphoric acid with wollastonite has been studied for reaction mixtures with a molar ratio r=P/Ca from 0.39 up to 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) reveal the formation of the crystalline products brushite (when r is smaller than 1.4) and monetite and calcium dihydrogenphosphate monohydrate (when r is above 1). Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR) and FTIR show that amorphous silica is also formed which contains some residual calcium and hydroxyl groups. The proposed reactions are confirmed by the evolution of the reaction enthalpy measured with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The reaction was monitored with temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The sharp increase of the elasticity modulus coincides with the onset of decrease in heat capacity. The setting of the reaction mixture does not slow down the reaction rate.

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Abstract  

The activation energy associated with the glass transition relaxation of an epoxy system has been determined by using the three-point bending clamp provided in the recently introduced TA Instruments DMA 2980 dynamic mechanical analyzer. A mathematical expression showing the dependency of modulus measurements on the sample properties and test conditions has also been derived. The experimental results showed that the evaluation of activation energy is affected by the heating rate and test frequency, as well as the criterion by which the glass transition temperature (T g) is established. It has been found that the activation energy based on the loss tangent (tanδ) peak is more reliable than on the loss modulus (E 2) peak, as long as the dynamic test conditions do not cause excessive thermal lags.

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