Authors:S.L. Krishnamurthy, S.K. Sharma, R.K. Gautam, and V. Kumar
Effects of salinity on correlation, path and stress indices, yield and its components were studied in a set of 34 promising rice genotypes collected from various national and international organizations. These genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications during the wet seasons (kharif) of 2009 and 2010 in normal (ECiw ∼ 1.2 dS/m) and salinity stress (ECiw ∼ 10 dS/m) environments in micro plots at Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI), Karnal, India. Grain yield per plant showed positive significant association with plant height, total tillers, productive tillers, panicle length, and biological yield per plant and harvest index under normal environment, whereas grain yield showed positive significant association with biological yield and harvest index under salinity stress. These results clearly indicate that selection of high yielding genotypes would be entirely different under normal and saline environments. The stress susceptibility index (SSI) values for grain yield ranged from 0.35 (HKR 127) to 1.55 (TR-2000-008), whereas the stress tolerance index (STI) values for grain yield ranged from 0.07 (PR 118) to 1.09 (HKR 120). The genotypes HKR 120, HKR 47 and CSR-RIL-197 exhibited higher values of stress tolerance index (STI) in salinity. Under salinity, negative and significant association was shown by SSI and grain yield in contrast to positive and significant association shown by STI and grain yield. These associations could be useful in identifying salt tolerant and sensitive high yielding genotypes. The stress susceptible and stress tolerance indices suggest that the genotypes developed for salinity tolerance could exhibit higher tolerance, adaptability and suitability. Harvest index and biological yield traits emerged as the ideal traits for improvement through selection and could be used to increase the rice productivity under saline stress environments.
A XX. század 80-as éveitől a neurózisfogalom használata fokozatosan kiszorul a szakirodalomból és a mindennapi gyakorlatból. Ehelyett a DSM-III és újabb átdolgozásai, valamint ICD-10 kategóriái mennek át a köztudatba. A szerző sorra veszi e radikális átalakulás előnyeit és hátrányait. Megállapítja, hogy nem csupán egy szűkebb szakterület belső problémájáról van szó. A diagnosztikai gondolkodás átalakulásának folyamatát egy tágabb társadalmi-kulturális keretbe helyezi. A dekonstrukció kifejezés találóan írja le azt a folyamatot, amelynek következtében a nagy, átfogó, egész kategóriák fokozatosan átadják helyüket a valóság apróra bontott részelemeinek. A dekonstrukció a középkori európai filozófia „univerzália vitáját” idézi fel, vagyis, hogy az általános fogalmaknak van-e és mennyiben van valóságos léttartalmuk. A neurózis, mint átfogó kategória, amely a pszichiátriai (és egyéb) betegek sokaságára jellemző, heurisztikus értékkel bír, amennyiben új tartalommal (antropológia, ontológia) töltjük fel. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 1327–1333.
Authors:Enas Abd El-Hamed, S. Metwally, M. Matar, and N. Yousef
Optimum fertilization management is an important technique to alleviate the adverse effects of salinity stress on plants. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative role of inorganic phosphorus (P) and organic P sources on wheat grown under salt stress in three soil types deficient in available P. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Shakha 93) was grown on alluvial, sandy and calcareous soils at salinity levels of 4, 8 and 12 dS/m of saturated paste extract (ECe) and supplied with a constant rate of 30 mg P2O5/kg soil as superphosphate (SP), cattle manure (CM) and a 1:1 mixture of SP and CM. The results revealed that plants grown on the sandy soil were more susceptible to the adverse effects of salinity than those planted on the alluvial one, especially at zero P. Plants grown on the calcareous soil were moderately affected. The varying soil type caused significant differences in the aboveground biomass and the uptake of N, K, P and Zn. It was obvious that P ameliorated wheat growth under salt stress, and this role was greater under moderate and high salinity. The increases in N, P, K and Zn uptake driven by P application were more conspicuous in the sandy and calcareous soils. The results also indicated that the combined application of inorganic and organic P sources surpassed that of either when applied alone on all soil types and salinity levels.
Authors:M. Gholipoor, K. Ghasemi-Golezani, F. R. Khooie, and M. Moghaddam
In order to investigate the effects of salinity on the early seedling growth of chickpea, four chickpea cultivars, Jam, Hashem (kabuli type: large seeded genotypes with light salmon colour), Kaka and Pirooz (desi type: small seeded genotypes with different colours), were grown in pots containing soils with 0.9 (control), 2.6 and 4.9 dSm-1 salinity. The shoot/root ratio of Pirooz was consistently reduced by increasing salinity at all sampling stages. Under saline conditions, the reduction in seedling growth, shoot water content, root and shoot K+ concentration and the increase in root and shoot Na+ concentration were more severe in the kabuli type than in desi type cultivars. Considering path coefficients, increasing seedling K+ concentration and uptake of water from the soil favoured salt-stressed seedling growth. Increasing K+ content alleviated the deleterious effects of root Na+ to a greater extent than that of shoot Na+. On the other hand, a higher percentage of the decrease in seedling growth as the result of Na+ was due to shoot K+ deficiency than to root K+ deficiency.
The aim of this study was to adapt MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay (MCA) (Wang et al., 2010) for determination of lactic acid bacteria cell count. Our study is helpful in developing protocols for measuring the viability of other lactic acid bacteria. We determined the cell concentration range which gives linear regression of CFU (colony forming units) and formazan production. In our experiment three authentic lactic acid bacteria strains were investigated: Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1, L. plantarum 2142, and L. sakei DSM 2001. As data show beside the strain also the growth medium has influence on the MTT reduction activity, this means that for each special case separate calibration curve has to be prepared. Based on MTT reduction we also developed an improved microtiter plate assay which proved to be reliable for a rapid cell count determination. So our methods are only applicable for estimate cell number with fixed parameters, but under given circumstances they are fast and sensitive methods. With the modified methods we can rapidly measure the dehydrogenase enzyme activity of the lactic acid bacteria cells. With the microplate assay we can measure many conditions and strains at the same time.
Authors:M. Gholipoor, A. Soltani, F. Shekari, and Fb. Shekari
In order to investigate the effects of salinity on water use efficiency (WUE) and its components, i.e. transpiration efficiency (TE), uptake efficiency (UE) and harvest index (HI), in chickpea, four chickpea cultivars were grown in pots containing soils with 0.8 (C=control), 2 (S1) and 3.9 (S2) dSm-1 salinity. At S1, the WUE of all cultivars increased, but subsequently decreased with increasing salinity. The relative contribution of TE to the sum of squares of WUE was relatively higher than UE and HI. Therefore, the TE component had a more crucial improving effect on WUE than the other two WUE components. At the S2 level, UE and HI were lower than in the control. Path analysis revealed that the simultaneous selection of non-stressed cultivars for higher TE and HI, and of salt-stressed cultivars for better TE and UE should be practised to improve WUE under non-stressed and high stress conditions, respectively. With respect to ion contents, the screening of salt-subjected cultivars for higher K+ content in the roots might result in an increase in both the total dry matter (TDM) and WUE of chickpea under stress conditions. Additionally, the selection of non-stressed cultivars on the basis of higher shoot Ca2+ concentration might stimulate the TDM and WUE of chickpea under non-stressed conditions.
Wheat is the second most important crop after rice in India and occupies approximately 28.5 million hectare area. Salinity is one of the major factors reducing plant growth and productivity worldwide, and affects about 7% of world’s total land area. In India about 6.73 million hectare land area is salt affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the morpho- physiological and biochemical response of wheat to temporal salinity (ECiw = 10.0 dSm–1) exposures. Ten wheat genotypes were evaluated in two successive growing seasons (2012–2014), with complete randomized design with three replications under both salinity stress and non-stress conditions. The morpho-physiological and biochemical character measured in this investigation, inhibited under both salt stresses (S1 & S2) conditions but much more significantly inhibited under long-term salinity exposure (S2) than S1 because interrupting the metabolic process of plant, resulting in reduced growth and productivity. According to correlation result, selection of high yield genotypes can be done based on plant height (0.649*), tiller plant–1 (0.808**) and leaf area (0.687*). The multivariate morphophysiological and biochemical parameters should be further used to develop salinity tolerance in wheat breeding improvement programmes.
Authors:R. van Sluijs, D. Bossus, M. Blaauw, G. Kennedy, A. De Wispelaere, S. van Lierde, and F. De Corte
True-coincidence summing correction is an essential element in k0-based NAA1 and becomes important when samples are counted with a high efficiency detector. This may be the case where large detectors are used or where samples are counted in or in the vicinity of the detector in order to achieve low detection limits in conjunction with low-flux reactors. In some laboratories coincidence correction is accomplished by calculating the coincidence correction factors. Since experimental validation of the calculations will reveal only the most significant errors and is a laborious task due to the high number of radionuclides involved, three laboratories decided to compare their calculated coincidence factors. Each laboratory uses a different software package. A comparative performance analysis was made of COINCALC developed at the INW of the University of Gent (implemented in SOLCOI by DSM Research), the software of the IRI, University of Delft, the Netherlands, and the software of the Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Canada. The overall approach, data and algorithms were chosen independently by each institute as the software was being developed and, so, the comparison has yielded a number of interesting conclusions. A follow-up investigation of the discrepancies found will probably allow the performance of each program to be improved.
Authors:F. De Corte, A. De Wispelaere, R. van Sluijs, D. Bossus, A. Simonits, J. Kučera, J. Frána, B. Smodis, and R. Jaćimović
At the Special Sessionk0
of the MTAA-8 (Vienna, 1991), and later on at the Intemationalk0 Users Workshop-Gent (1992), progress was reported with respect to the development and use of computer codes in order to mould thek0-standardization of neutron activation analysis into an effective working instrument. Among others, this resulted in the software package KAYZERO for PC DOS, which was designed and distributed by DSM Research (Geleen, NL), and which is based on thek0-methodology, algorithms and nuclear data file developed and created at the INW (Gent, B) and the KFKI (Budapest, H), the traditional
k0-centres. One of the most recent initiatives is a project in the framework of the COPERNICUS programme of the Commission of the European Union. It uses the synergism of a Joint Research Project to give an impulse to the exploitation of KAYZERO-assisted NAA as a manageable and competitive analytical tool in industry and environmental sanitation in Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovenia. An outline is given of the strategy worked out in this JRP, emphasizing the procedures applied in the three institutes for the calibration of their irradiation facilities and Ge-detectors, quality control and assurance procedures following the implementation of the method, and the identification and tackling of the practical analytical problems which are of relevance to the Central European partner countries.
Authors:Trudy M. Wassenaar, Anke Zschüttig, Claudia Beimfohr, Thomas Geske, Christian Auerbach, Helen Cook, Kurt Zimmermann, and Florian Gunzer
The probiotic product Symbioflor2 (DSM 17252) is a bacterial concentrate of six different Escherichia coli genotypes,
whose complete genome sequences are compared here, between each other as well as to other E. coli genomes. The genome
sequences of Symbioflor2 E. coli components contained a number of virulence-associated genes. Their presence seems to be
in conflict with a recorded history of safe use, and with the observed low frequency of adverse effects over a period of more than 6 years.
The genome sequences were used to identify unique sequences for each component, for which strain-specific hybridization probes were designed.
A colonization study was conducted whereby five volunteers were exposed to an exceptionally high single dose. The results showed that the probiotic
E. coli could be detected for 3 months or longer in their stools, and this was in particular the case for those components containing higher
numbers of virulence-associated genes. Adverse effects from this long-term colonization were absent. Thus, the presence of the identified
virulence genes does not result in a pathogenic phenotype in the genetic background of these probiotic E. coli.