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The main objective of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project is to significantly extend the potential, how demands on spatial soil related information could be satisfied in Hungary. Although a great amount of soil information is available due to former mappings and surveys, there are more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data. The gaps are planned to be filled with optimized digital soil mapping (DSM) products heavily based on legacy soil data, which still represent a valuable treasure of soil information at the present time. The paper presents three approaches for the application of Hungarian legacy soil data in object oriented digital soil mapping.

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Abstract  

The paper focuses on the validation of the k 0-method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0-INAA) in the Tajura Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) via the analysis of several certified reference materials. The selected reference materials were: SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves, SRM 1575 Pine Needles, IAEA-A11 Milk Powder, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder, RM IAEA-Soil-7 and RM IAEA-SL-1 Lake Sediment. The method is based on the PC version Kayzero/Solcoi software package issued by DSM. All the samples, reference materials and monitors were irradiated in various positions of the Tajura reactor with different f and α. The parameters f and α (f — thermal/epithermal neutron flux ratio, α — parameter accounting for the non-ideality of the 1/E epithermal neutron fluence rate distribution) were determined using the bare triple monitor method. The results obtained for all the reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values.

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A XX. század 80-as éveitől a neurózisfogalom használata fokozatosan kiszorul a szakirodalomból és a mindennapi gyakorlatból. Ehelyett a DSM-III és újabb átdolgozásai, valamint ICD-10 kategóriái mennek át a köztudatba. A szerző sorra veszi e radikális átalakulás előnyeit és hátrányait. Megállapítja, hogy nem csupán egy szűkebb szakterület belső problémájáról van szó. A diagnosztikai gondolkodás átalakulásának folyamatát egy tágabb társadalmi-kulturális keretbe helyezi. A dekonstrukció kifejezés találóan írja le azt a folyamatot, amelynek következtében a nagy, átfogó, egész kategóriák fokozatosan átadják helyüket a valóság apróra bontott részelemeinek. A dekonstrukció a középkori európai filozófia „univerzália vitáját” idézi fel, vagyis, hogy az általános fogalmaknak van-e és mennyiben van valóságos léttartalmuk. A neurózis, mint átfogó kategória, amely a pszichiátriai (és egyéb) betegek sokaságára jellemző, heurisztikus értékkel bír, amennyiben új tartalommal (antropológia, ontológia) töltjük fel. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 1327–1333.

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Effects of salinity on correlation, path and stress indices, yield and its components were studied in a set of 34 promising rice genotypes collected from various national and international organizations. These genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications during the wet seasons (kharif) of 2009 and 2010 in normal (ECiw ∼ 1.2 dS/m) and salinity stress (ECiw ∼ 10 dS/m) environments in micro plots at Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI), Karnal, India. Grain yield per plant showed positive significant association with plant height, total tillers, productive tillers, panicle length, and biological yield per plant and harvest index under normal environment, whereas grain yield showed positive significant association with biological yield and harvest index under salinity stress. These results clearly indicate that selection of high yielding genotypes would be entirely different under normal and saline environments. The stress susceptibility index (SSI) values for grain yield ranged from 0.35 (HKR 127) to 1.55 (TR-2000-008), whereas the stress tolerance index (STI) values for grain yield ranged from 0.07 (PR 118) to 1.09 (HKR 120). The genotypes HKR 120, HKR 47 and CSR-RIL-197 exhibited higher values of stress tolerance index (STI) in salinity. Under salinity, negative and significant association was shown by SSI and grain yield in contrast to positive and significant association shown by STI and grain yield. These associations could be useful in identifying salt tolerant and sensitive high yielding genotypes. The stress susceptible and stress tolerance indices suggest that the genotypes developed for salinity tolerance could exhibit higher tolerance, adaptability and suitability. Harvest index and biological yield traits emerged as the ideal traits for improvement through selection and could be used to increase the rice productivity under saline stress environments.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Trudy M. Wassenaar, Anke Zschüttig, Claudia Beimfohr, Thomas Geske, Christian Auerbach, Helen Cook, Kurt Zimmermann, and Florian Gunzer

The probiotic product Symbioflor2 (DSM 17252) is a bacterial concentrate of six different Escherichia coli genotypes, whose complete genome sequences are compared here, between each other as well as to other E. coli genomes. The genome sequences of Symbioflor2 E. coli components contained a number of virulence-associated genes. Their presence seems to be in conflict with a recorded history of safe use, and with the observed low frequency of adverse effects over a period of more than 6 years. The genome sequences were used to identify unique sequences for each component, for which strain-specific hybridization probes were designed. A colonization study was conducted whereby five volunteers were exposed to an exceptionally high single dose. The results showed that the probiotic E. coli could be detected for 3 months or longer in their stools, and this was in particular the case for those components containing higher numbers of virulence-associated genes. Adverse effects from this long-term colonization were absent. Thus, the presence of the identified virulence genes does not result in a pathogenic phenotype in the genetic background of these probiotic E. coli.

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Abstract  

At the Special Sessionk 0 of the MTAA-8 (Vienna, 1991), and later on at the Intemationalk 0 Users Workshop-Gent (1992), progress was reported with respect to the development and use of computer codes in order to mould thek 0-standardization of neutron activation analysis into an effective working instrument. Among others, this resulted in the software package KAYZERO for PC DOS, which was designed and distributed by DSM Research (Geleen, NL), and which is based on thek 0-methodology, algorithms and nuclear data file developed and created at the INW (Gent, B) and the KFKI (Budapest, H), the traditional k 0-centres. One of the most recent initiatives is a project in the framework of the COPERNICUS programme of the Commission of the European Union. It uses the synergism of a Joint Research Project to give an impulse to the exploitation of KAYZERO-assisted NAA as a manageable and competitive analytical tool in industry and environmental sanitation in Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovenia. An outline is given of the strategy worked out in this JRP, emphasizing the procedures applied in the three institutes for the calibration of their irradiation facilities and Ge-detectors, quality control and assurance procedures following the implementation of the method, and the identification and tackling of the practical analytical problems which are of relevance to the Central European partner countries.

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At the Department of Food Technology at Fulda University of Applied Sciences different methods for microencapsulation of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 were investigated. The aim of these studies was to develop a process to stabilize the probiotic bacteria for storage and to prevent them from the gastric conditions, to ensure that a satisfactory amount of the probiotics could reach their target location, the human intestine. Drying processes like spray drying and freeze drying were tested as well as fluidized bed granulation with optional Wurster coating using different auxiliary materials. As encapsulation material maltodextrine, sweet whey powder or gummi arabicum were used. The coating experiments were performed with an aqueous shellac solution.

In the performed studies the fluidized bed bottom spray granulation with an additional Wurster coating turned out to be an encouraging procedure to keep the probiotics in a stable form resistant against gastric conditions. The survival rate in the simulated gastro-intestinal passage could be increased up to the sevenfold amount of the untreated bacteria.

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Abstract  

True-coincidence summing correction is an essential element in k 0-based NAA1 and becomes important when samples are counted with a high efficiency detector. This may be the case where large detectors are used or where samples are counted in or in the vicinity of the detector in order to achieve low detection limits in conjunction with low-flux reactors. In some laboratories coincidence correction is accomplished by calculating the coincidence correction factors. Since experimental validation of the calculations will reveal only the most significant errors and is a laborious task due to the high number of radionuclides involved, three laboratories decided to compare their calculated coincidence factors. Each laboratory uses a different software package. A comparative performance analysis was made of COINCALC developed at the INW of the University of Gent (implemented in SOLCOI by DSM Research), the software of the IRI, University of Delft, the Netherlands, and the software of the Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Canada. The overall approach, data and algorithms were chosen independently by each institute as the software was being developed and, so, the comparison has yielded a number of interesting conclusions. A follow-up investigation of the discrepancies found will probably allow the performance of each program to be improved.

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In order to investigate the effects of salinity on the early seedling growth of chickpea, four chickpea cultivars, Jam, Hashem (kabuli type: large seeded genotypes with light salmon colour), Kaka and Pirooz (desi type: small seeded genotypes with different colours), were grown in pots containing soils with 0.9 (control), 2.6 and 4.9 dSm-1 salinity. The shoot/root ratio of Pirooz was consistently reduced by increasing salinity at all sampling stages. Under saline conditions, the reduction in seedling growth, shoot water content, root and shoot K+ concentration and the increase in root and shoot Na+ concentration were more severe in the kabuli type than in desi type cultivars. Considering path coefficients, increasing seedling K+ concentration and uptake of water from the soil favoured salt-stressed seedling growth. Increasing K+ content alleviated the deleterious effects of root Na+ to a greater extent than that of shoot Na+. On the other hand, a higher percentage of the decrease in seedling growth as the result of Na+ was due to shoot K+ deficiency than to root K+ deficiency.

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Abstract

Background and aims

The purpose of this study was to verify the factorial structure, internal validity, reliability, and criterion validity of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R) in an Italian sample.

Methods

Italian voluntary (N = 519) users of gyms who had a history of regular exercise for over a year completed the EDS-R and measures of exercise frequency.

Results and conclusions

Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a good fit to the hypothesized 7-factor model, and adequate internal consistency for the scale was evidenced. Criterion validity was evidenced by significant correlations among all the subscale of the EDS and exercise frequency. Finally, individuals at risk for exercise dependence reported more exercise behavior compared to the nondependent-symptomatic and nondependent-asymptomatic groups. These results suggest that the seven subscales of the Italian version of the EDS are measuring the construct of exercise dependence as defined by the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence and also confirm previous research using the EDS-R in other languages. More research is needed to examine the psychometric properties of the EDS-R in diverse populations with various research designs.

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