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patterns in functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome: relationship to disturbances in gastric emptying and response to nutrient challange in consulters and non-consulters. Gut, 2004, 53 , 1445

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-image disturbance using adjustable image distortion. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 34 (1), 90—92. 31 Sipos, K., & Sipos, M. (1983). The development and validation of the Hungarian form of

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Soil biological properties and CO 2 emission were compared in undisturbed grass and regularly disked rows of a peach plantation. Higher nutrient content and biological activity were found in the undisturbed, grass-covered rows. Significantly higher CO 2 fluxes were measured in this treatment at almost all the measurement times, in all the soil water content ranges, except the one in which the volumetric soil water content was higher than 45%. The obtained results indicated that in addition to the favourable effect of soil tillage on soil aeration, regular soil disturbance reduces soil microbial activity and soil CO 2 emission.

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Whodunnit? — Disturbed graves in early medieval cemeteries . Graves disturbed in antiquity are a common feature in any period in which inhumation burial was practised. Disturbances of early medieval graves are often interpreted as human interference. Excavations at the Langobardic-period cemetery at Szólád (Kom. Somogy) in 2005–2007, however, indicated that the role of burrowing animals should not be underestimated. Excellent soil conditions demonstrated that at least 10% of the graves were disturbed by burrowing animals whose activities displaced bones and grave-goods. In this particular case, badgers, who are known to inhabit warrens for several generations and for extending them to a depth of 5 metres, are the most likely suspects.

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Instrumental neutron activation techniques for the determination of 26–36 impurities in MoSi2, WSi2, TiB2, NbB2, TiC, NbC and SiC with detection limit of 0.1–0.000001 ppm in the range of contents of 100–0.001 ppm have been developed. The determination of this large number of elements was achieved with using complex conditions of irradiation, including varying neutron energy and choosing optimal time parameters. The contents of short-lived radionuclides also have been determined. Self-shielding and disturbance of neutron flux, absorption of -rays were taken into account both with the help of literature data and preliminarily obtained experimental results.

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Aqueous Pb(II) samples, spiked with210Pb/210Bi in secular equilibrium to study container adsorption, can provide some helpful insights if one takes advantage of the Cherenkov effect. While both radionuclides give high efficiencies when counted in a scintillator cocktail medium, only210Bi has a sufficiently energetic -particle to yield an appreciable count rate in a water medium. Thus, monitoring the cocktail-to-water count rate ratio can provide important clues as to what happens during adsorption. A significant change in the ratio indicates not only disturbance of the secular equilibrium relationship, but indicates which nuclide is preferentially adsorbed.

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We have developed a formula that assigns relative values to each author of the list in any publication according to the authors' relative positions. The formula satisfies several criteria of theoretical and practical significance. We tested the formula's validity and usefulness with bibliographical references from the INSPEC database, mainly from the physical sciences. Enforced alphabetical sorting, different names of single authors and other statistical disturbances are accounted for. Our results demonstrate that our formula, or any other that satisfies several objective and quantitative criteria, can and often should be used as an additional criterion in the processes of evaluating relative scientific productivity, detecting experts in a given discipline, etc.

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Two sediment cores were recovered in San Simón Bay (NW Spain) in order to establish sediment accumulation rates by 210Pb and 137Cs dating and to reconstruct metal pollution history. Sediment composition was determined by X-ray Fluorescence. A main lithogenic origin was shown up. Grain size conditions radionuclide activities and element concentrations. Fine grained sediments concentrate pollutants and showed higher activities. Radionuclide profiles are affected by diagenetic processes and sedimentary disturbances, but a temporal framework could be obtained for the intertidal area, where the anthropogenic inputs of Cu, Pb and Zn started several decades ago.

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The flexibility of the internal structures of solids, both crystalline and amorphous, is a result of the freedom of the displacement of their elements, without disturbance of the continuity of the structure as a whole. This article discusses peculiarities of solids with flexible structures. The effects of flexibility in the thermal reactions of the creation of new compounds in the internal structure of solids, and the phase transitions, are considered. Flexibility is indispensable for random amorphous structure formation. The glass transition effect is a consequence of the high flexibility of the structure of glasses.

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Boreal mixedwood understory communities are highly dynamic because they are simultaneously influenced by canopy succession, small-scale environmental variation and disturbances. In such a system, fire initiates succession but canopy gaps, resulting from spruce budworm outbreaks or other disturbances, also affect forest dynamics during succession. In this study, we assessed the short-term response of understory communities along a canopy gap severity gradient in mature and old-growth forest stands. The objective was to determine if resource heterogeneity is driving understory community composition and diversity. We created artificial gaps of varying severities in stands of two late successional forest stages. Four treatments, i.e., total cut, conifer cut, girdling of conifers and a control treatment, were each applied over an area of 100 m2 and replicated three times in both types of forest stands. The cover of each understory species was measured before treatment application and 1, 2 and 11 years following it, in seven 1 m2 plots per replicate. Percent transmission of photosynthetic photon flux density and soil temperature were also measured on different occasions after the beginning of the experiment. Species richness, alpha diversity and total cover all increased following gap creation, and this increase was sustained up to 11 years. Increases were more pronounced in total cut than in other treatments. The increase in species richness and diversity was also more pronounced in old-growth stands, while total cover increase was greater in mature stands. Gap creation resulted in significant changes in abundance patterns that were associated with the resident species assemblages. The magnitude of changes in community composition did not significantly differ between mature and old-growth forests and differences in species composition among stands were maintained following gap creation. This study supports the evidence that resource heterogeneity resulting from small-scale disturbances will contribute to maintaining diversity among understory communities by allowing species more typical of early-successional communities to coexist with species from late-successional ones. Such a process may be essential for maintaining the species pool likely to re-invade the stands following major disturbances.

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