Authors:Y. Oh, S. Ryu, H. Kim, H. Kawamura, Y. Tennichi, N. Matsuoka, and Y. Maeda
Aerosols and source related materials (fly ash from refuse incinerators, vehicle exhaust and soil) were collected in April,
2002 in the northern areas of Jeju-do, Korea, and the Pb isotopic ratios (207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) of the samples were measured in order to estimate the Pb sources of the aerosols. The Pb isotopic ratios of the aerosols
were classified into two groups, depending on the sampling date. One group showed similar Pb isotopic ratios with those of
the source related materials, suggesting that the contribution of the regional sources to the aerosols was very large. The
other showed different Pb isotopic ratios from those of the regional sources and relatively high Pb isotopic ratios compared
to the ratios of the first group. The results suggest that in the continental Asia there seems to be a long range transport
of Pb with high ratios in desert sands, which are carried by northwest seasonal winds.
Authors:Kyoung Min Kim, Sam-Wook Choi, Dohyun Kim, Jaewon Lee, and Jun Won Kim
Study setting, data sources, and sample
Individuals who visited the gambling disorder clinic in a university hospital, South Korea, were considered for inclusion in the study. The inclusion
Authors:M. Baik, S. Kim, J. Lee, S. Lee, G. Kim, and S. Yun
Sorption experiments for radionuclides such as 14C, 99Tc, 137Cs, 90Sr, 63Ni, and 241Am were conducted using two different groundwaters (GM-1 and SS-5) and solid materials (granodiorite and fracture-filling
material) sampled from the Wolsong low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository, Gyeongju, Korea. The distribution
coefficients of the radionuclides, Kd’s, were obtained and their sorption properties were discussed for each radionuclide. For all sorbing radionuclides, the Kd values for the fracture-filling material were observed to be higher than those for granodiorite regardless of the groundwater.
The Kd values were increased in the sequence 99Tc < 14C < 90Sr < 137Cs < 63Ni < 241Am regardless of sorbent types implying that the sorption of radionuclides onto geological media is affected by their chemical
behavior in accordance with geochemical environments. Anionic radionuclides such as 14C and 99Tc showed very low Kd values both for the granodiorite and fracture-filling material. The mineralogical composition of the geological media and
groundwater conditions was also observed to be important in the sorption of sorbing radionuclides, especially in the case
of strongly sorbing radionuclides.
Summary Institutions and their aggregates are not the right units of analysis for developing a science policy with cognitive goals in view. Institutions, however, can be compared in terms of their performance with reference to their previous stages. King's (2004) 'The scientific impact of nations' has provided the data for this comparison. Evaluation of the data from this perspective along the time axis leads to completely different and hitherto overlooked conclusions: a new dynamic can be revealed which points to a group of emerging nations. These nations do not increase their contributions marginally, but their national science systems grow endogenously. In addition to publications, their citation rates keep pace with the exponential growth patterns, albeit with a delay. The center of gravity of the world system of science may be changing accordingly.
To examine inshore radioactive contamination caused by nuclear power plants, both gross -radioactivity and -spectrometry was measured. The measurements were taken with the sea mussels, Mytilus coruscus and Mytilus edulis, which had been collected from the four different sites of nuclear power plants (Kori, Ulchin, Wolsong, and Younggwang), and Cheju-do as a control site. As a result, the gross -radioactivity observed was similar to that in nature. Among radionuclides, only137Cs,20K,7Be and60Co were detected in a very small amount, and each was also close to the natural levels.
Authors:J. Moon, S. Kim, Y. Chung, J. Lim, G. Ahn, and M. Koh
A delayed neutron counting system has been implemented at the HANARO research reactor in 2007. Thermal neutron flux measured
at the NAA #2 irradiation hole coupled to the delayed counting system, was higher than 3 × 1013 n cm−2 s−1. The delayed neutron counting system is composed of 18 3He detectors which are divided into three groups with six detectors and the collected signals of each group are processed
to a digital signal. The count numbers were measured with the uranium mass by using NIST SRMs under fixed analytical condition
and their correlation could be determined. Finally, delayed neutron activation analysis has been carried out for the determination
of uranium mass fraction in the collected environmental samples.
The concentrations and activity ratios of the radionuclides aroundthe nuclear facilities located in Taejon were determined. The concentrationsand activity ratios of uranium isotopes in the downstream decreased with increasingdistances from the point of discharge and reached the reference value after4 km. The concentrations of uranium isotopes in the brook around LWR fuelfabrication facilities were lower than those in the downstream around HWRand LWR fuel fabrication facilities, while the activity ratios of 234U/238U in the brook were higher than those in the downstream.The concentrations of uranium isotopes in the ground water measured quarterlywere variable depending on the sampling time. The concentrations of the grossalpha of airborne particulates collected around the nuclear facilities werefound to be in the narrow range of 0.02 to 0.10 mBq/m3 with a meanvalue of 0.05 mBq/m 3 . Both the concentrations and activity ratios of 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 90 Sr around the nuclearfacilities were not very different from the worldwide fallout. The concentrationsof uranium isotopes in the soil samples around the nuclear facilities werevery close to natural background levels.
This article compares empirically the major factors affecting blinded and sighted reviewers in the selection of research proposals to be funded in a "scientifically small" country. Fisher's Z-test shows that the applicant characteristics (rank of undergraduate school where the applicant studied, professional age of the applicant, and academic recognition of the applicant) are the major factors leading to the significantly different evaluation scores between blinded and sighted reviewers. This means that "open" evaluation of research proposals is obviously biased. Policy implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.
The quality and value of a patent can be represented by several proxies, such as how often the patent is cited in other patents,
whether it is licensed, and the age of the patent. The paper uses a binary choice model to investigate factors affecting patent
licensing, and it uses double-bounded tobit and duration models to investigate factors affecting patent life. Explanatory
variables and dependent variables are extracted from U.S. patent information and related data. Findings suggest research collaboration
has a positive effect on both patent licensing and patent life. Other characteristics such as invention size, namely, the
scope of the invention measured by number of claims, and organizational technological cumulativeness, measured by self-citation
counts, also affect patent life.