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disorder. Methods Study setting, data sources, and sample Individuals who visited the gambling disorder clinic in a university hospital, South Korea, were considered for inclusion in the study. The inclusion

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Abstract  

Sorption experiments for radionuclides such as 14C, 99Tc, 137Cs, 90Sr, 63Ni, and 241Am were conducted using two different groundwaters (GM-1 and SS-5) and solid materials (granodiorite and fracture-filling material) sampled from the Wolsong low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository, Gyeongju, Korea. The distribution coefficients of the radionuclides, K d’s, were obtained and their sorption properties were discussed for each radionuclide. For all sorbing radionuclides, the K d values for the fracture-filling material were observed to be higher than those for granodiorite regardless of the groundwater. The K d values were increased in the sequence 99Tc < 14C < 90Sr < 137Cs < 63Ni < 241Am regardless of sorbent types implying that the sorption of radionuclides onto geological media is affected by their chemical behavior in accordance with geochemical environments. Anionic radionuclides such as 14C and 99Tc showed very low K d values both for the granodiorite and fracture-filling material. The mineralogical composition of the geological media and groundwater conditions was also observed to be important in the sorption of sorbing radionuclides, especially in the case of strongly sorbing radionuclides.

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The concentrations and activity ratios of the radionuclides aroundthe nuclear facilities located in Taejon were determined. The concentrationsand activity ratios of uranium isotopes in the downstream decreased with increasingdistances from the point of discharge and reached the reference value after4 km. The concentrations of uranium isotopes in the brook around LWR fuelfabrication facilities were lower than those in the downstream around HWRand LWR fuel fabrication facilities, while the activity ratios of 234U/238U in the brook were higher than those in the downstream.The concentrations of uranium isotopes in the ground water measured quarterlywere variable depending on the sampling time. The concentrations of the grossalpha of airborne particulates collected around the nuclear facilities werefound to be in the narrow range of 0.02 to 0.10 mBq/m3 with a meanvalue of 0.05 mBq/m 3 . Both the concentrations and activity ratios of 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 90 Sr around the nuclearfacilities were not very different from the worldwide fallout. The concentrationsof uranium isotopes in the soil samples around the nuclear facilities werevery close to natural background levels.

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To examine inshore radioactive contamination caused by nuclear power plants, both gross -radioactivity and -spectrometry was measured. The measurements were taken with the sea mussels, Mytilus coruscus and Mytilus edulis, which had been collected from the four different sites of nuclear power plants (Kori, Ulchin, Wolsong, and Younggwang), and Cheju-do as a control site. As a result, the gross -radioactivity observed was similar to that in nature. Among radionuclides, only137Cs,20K,7Be and60Co were detected in a very small amount, and each was also close to the natural levels.

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A delayed neutron counting system has been implemented at the HANARO research reactor in 2007. Thermal neutron flux measured at the NAA #2 irradiation hole coupled to the delayed counting system, was higher than 3 × 1013 n cm−2 s−1. The delayed neutron counting system is composed of 18 3He detectors which are divided into three groups with six detectors and the collected signals of each group are processed to a digital signal. The count numbers were measured with the uranium mass by using NIST SRMs under fixed analytical condition and their correlation could be determined. Finally, delayed neutron activation analysis has been carried out for the determination of uranium mass fraction in the collected environmental samples.

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Summary Institutions and their aggregates are not the right units of analysis for developing a science policy with cognitive goals in view. Institutions, however, can be compared in terms of their performance with reference to their previous stages. King's (2004) 'The scientific impact of nations' has provided the data for this comparison. Evaluation of the data from this perspective along the time axis leads to completely different and hitherto overlooked conclusions: a new dynamic can be revealed which points to a group of emerging nations. These nations do not increase their contributions marginally, but their national science systems grow endogenously. In addition to publications, their citation rates keep pace with the exponential growth patterns, albeit with a delay. The center of gravity of the world system of science may be changing accordingly.

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The quality and value of a patent can be represented by several proxies, such as how often the patent is cited in other patents, whether it is licensed, and the age of the patent. The paper uses a binary choice model to investigate factors affecting patent licensing, and it uses double-bounded tobit and duration models to investigate factors affecting patent life. Explanatory variables and dependent variables are extracted from U.S. patent information and related data. Findings suggest research collaboration has a positive effect on both patent licensing and patent life. Other characteristics such as invention size, namely, the scope of the invention measured by number of claims, and organizational technological cumulativeness, measured by self-citation counts, also affect patent life.

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This article compares empirically the major factors affecting blinded and sighted reviewers in the selection of research proposals to be funded in a "scientifically small" country. Fisher's Z-test shows that the applicant characteristics (rank of undergraduate school where the applicant studied, professional age of the applicant, and academic recognition of the applicant) are the major factors leading to the significantly different evaluation scores between blinded and sighted reviewers. This means that "open" evaluation of research proposals is obviously biased. Policy implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.

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It is regarded that the spent resins from the water purification systems of moderator (MOD) and the primary coolant of the Canada deuterium uranium-pressurized heavy water reactor (CANDU-PHWR) are a unique waste, owing to their high 14C and gamma-emitting nuclides. In this work, 14C and 3H contents, anion and cation fractions and the predominant gamma-emitting nuclides of the spent resins from 4 units of CANDUPHWRs, were investigated. Also the chemical species of 14C of the spent resins were determined. For a simultaneous separation of 14C and 3H from the spent resins, the wet oxidation-16 wt% H2SO4 stripping process was utilized. The 14C and 3H activity concentration range of the spent resins of the nuclear power plant (NPP), 4 units of all CANDU-PHWR types, was 2.48E5 Bq/g ∼5.33E6 Bq/g, 1.29E5 Bq/g and ∼2.33E5 Bq/g, respectively. Among the analyzed spent resins, the highest 14C and 3H activity concentration was detected in units 4 and 3, respectively. It was found that more than 92% of the 14C activity concentration was retained on the anion resin and the predominant chemical species was inorganic 14C. It was revealed that the anion resin fraction of the spent resins from unit 1 and unit 2, was about 40% and that of unit 3 and unit 4 was around 60%. More than 80% of the total gamma-radioactivity concentration was associated with the cation fraction of the spent resin. The predominant gamma-emitting nuclide of the spent resin for unit 2 was 137Cs, a fission product, and that for unit 4 was 60Co, a corrosion product.

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