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Abstract  

Al, As, Br, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ti, V and Zn were determined in the soluble and insoluble fractions of snow which was collected at 6 differents sites in the Montreal area. From these data the variability coefficients and the enrichment factors were calculated and the probable sources of each element are discussed. The overall concentrations found in the snow were compared with the concentrations of these elements in the air sampled in the same area by high volume samplers. From these, the snow-out ratios for Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, V and Zn and their mean were calculated. They are equal to 3338, 3389, 2322, 526, 563, 2603 and 2913 m3/kg respectively.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: A. Markowicz, N. Haselberger, M. Dargie, A. Tajani, A. Tchantchane, V. Valkovic, and P. Danesi

Abstract  

A conventional X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method as well as total reflection XRF have been applied to the analysis of various environmental materials. Some methodological changes in order to extend the applicability range and improve the accuracy of the XRF analysis are also discussed.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been performed on human head hair of newborns and mothers sampled in two areas with a different level of environmental exposure. The group of neonates from the exposed area (polluted by thermal power plants burning brown coal and by chemical industry) has exhibited higher levels of several trace elements in hair, e.g. Se, Zn, Hg and Sb in comparison with the control group. Moreover, the mean concentrations of Se, Hg, Zn and Br in neonate hair have been found to be higher than in mothers hair. Although the study revealed statistically significant differences in the composition of neonate hair sampled in areas with different levels of environmental exposure, the differences are relatively small. Only a thorough long-term study both with environmental and medical observations can prove a direct connection of the elevated levels of some trace elements in neonate hair with the higher frequency of mental diseases of children living in the exposed area.

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Abstract  

The impact of tanning and electroplating industry on the eastern part of Barada River environment has been evaluated. Sediment, soil and plant samples were collected from nine sites at the river near the eastern industrial complex during 1999. Results of instrumental neutron activation analysis have shown high levels of Cr in sediment collected near the tanning factories; the highest value obtained being 2692 ppm. In addition, relatively high levels of Cr were also found in the agriculture soil collected near the riverbank in the industrial complex; Cr concentrations varied between 77 ppm and 327 ppm. However, Cr concentrations in plant leaves grown at riverbank were found low and this due to strong bounding of Cr to soil. Other trace metals such as copper and nickel were also high in sediment samples. The highest concentration of copper was about 4000 ppm, which is much higher than the natural levels; electroplating shops are the main source of this element in the area. Furthermore, concentrations of the studied trace metals have decreased as the sampling site distance became far from the industrial complex. In general, other trace elements were found to be at low concentrations, but the obtained data can be used as a baseline for future monitoring.

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Abstract  

Samples of honey, pollen and honey bees have been collected in some regions of Italy after the Chernobyl accident, and subjected to gamma spectrometry in order to assess their possible use as markers of the radioactive environmental contamination. Pollen has resulted in the best indicator, since it reflects exactly the air contamination and therefore it is suitable for obtaining a map of fallout. Also bees can be used for the purpose, even if their collection is more difficult, whereas honey gives only an indication.

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Abstract  

The monitoring of pesticide residual levels was done is reservoir water, mud, zooplankton, live and dead fish muscle and gill tissue for a period from November 1976 to January 1978. Using electron capture detector, both organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues have been detected in the Sathiar Ecosystem. Although in nanogram levels they have shown a general increase in the course of one year. Of the former group, BHC appeared to persist undergraded than DDT in the fish muscle. With reference to DDT and DDE it is the latter which has registered increased levels in soil, water and fish. Endrin was detected only in water. The organophosphorus pesticides represented by parathion appears only in traces in the water as flood water fills Sathiar resorvoir and is degraded completely (possibly as phenolic compounds) and utilised.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for the determination of trace elements in Canoparmelia texana species collected mnonpolluted areas of Atlantic Forest and in six sites of Santo André Municipality, SP, Brazil. Concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cs, Co, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, and Zn were determined and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites.

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Abstract  

This study aims to investigate whether known carcinogenic chemical elements in atmospheric deposition might be associated with child mortality due to leukemia in the Portuguese population. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to explore the association between lichen biomonitoring measurements of four elements—As, Hg, Ni, Pb—and childhood leukemia death counts taken at small administrative units. This geographical epidemiological study found a non-significant positive association between the risk of childhood leukemia and levels of arsenic, mercury and lead, and a non-significant negative association between the disease and the level of nickel. Lead seems to show a weaker association with childhood leukemia than arsenic and mercury.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation, proton induced X-ray emission and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence procedures were employed for trace element determinations in samples of fractionated air particulate matter deposited on filters. The techniques are well suited to analyse the generally small samples. However, indications of bias between techniques were found in the analysis of individual filters. This may be rectified with the development of matched reference materials. The three techniques were used in this work to determine trace elements in bulk samples of air particulate matter and in a set of intercomparison samples of fine air particulate matter on filters. The test results on these materials showed good agreement among the employed techniques and demonstrated the quality potential of air particulate analyses.

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Karbonátos Duna–Tisza közi homoktalajon vizsgáltuk a 0, 30, 90 és 270 kg·ha–1 mikroelem-terhelés 4. évi utóhatását a napraforgóra. A mikroelemek sóit egy ízben a kísérlet indulásakor 1995 tavaszán szórtuk ki Cr2(SO4)3, K2Cr2O7, CuSO4, Pb(NO3)2, Na2SeO3 és ZnSO4 formájában. A 6 elem×4 terhelés = 24 kezelés×3 ismétlés = 72 (egyenként 7×5 = 35 m² méretű) parcellát jelentett. A termőhely a homoktalajokra jellemzően rossz vízgazdálkodású, aszályérzékeny és a főbb tápelemekkel (NPK) gyengén ellátott. A szántott réteg 0,7–1,0% humuszt, 2–3% CaCO3-ot tartalmaz, a talajvíz 5–10 m mélyen található. Alaptrágyaként 100–100–100 kg·ha–1 N, P2O5 és K2O hatóanyagot alkalmazunk évente az egész kísérletben. A növényi sorrend sárgarépa, zöldborsó, őszi búza, napraforgó volt. A főbb eredmények: – A kedvező időjárás/csapadékviszonyok nyomán a szennyezetlen kontrolltalajon kereken 2,3 t·ha–1 kaszat, illetve összesen 7,1 t·ha–1 légszáraz föld feletti biomassza képződött. A kaszat olajtartalma 51% volt, az olajhozam 1,2 t·ha–1 mennyiséget tett ki. A kísérlet 4. évében a Se-terhelés bizonyult toxikusnak. Terméscsökkenés már a 30 kg·ha–1 adagnál igazolható volt, míg a 270 kg·ha–1 terhelésnél a napraforgó gyakorlatilag kipusztult, a föld feletti biomassza 1/10-ére zuhant. A melléktermés/főtermés aránya betakarításkor a kontrollon mért 2,1-ről 5,0-re nőtt, a toxicitás a generatív fázisban volt a kifejezettebb. – A napraforgó szerveinek Cr-tartalma egy nagyságrenddel dúsult a kontrollhoz viszonyítva. A koncentrációemelkedés a Cr(VI)-kezelésben átlagosan kétszerese volt a Cr(III)-kezelésben mértnek. A koncentrációk a hajtás, szár, levél, tányér, kaszat sorrendben csökkentek. Hasonló sorrendben mérséklődött az Pb-koncentráció is, mely a kaszatban már minden esetben a 0,1 mg·kg–1 kimutatási határ alatt maradt. Mérsékelten emelkedett szennyezett talajon a Cu-tartalom, mely a kaszatban már igazolhatóan nem is változott. A Zn-koncentráció maximálisan 2–3-szorosára nőtt. Hiperakkumulációt mutatott a Se minden növényi részben, ezres nagyságrendbeli dúsulással. A szelénnel kezelt talajon termett napraforgó magja emberi fogyasztásra, illetve a hajtása, szára takarmányozási célokra egyaránt alkalmatlanná vált. – A terméscsökkenés miatt a maximális Se-felvétel a 30 és 90 kg·ha–1 terhelésnél jelentkezett és 450 g·ha–1 mennyiséget tett ki. Változatlan körülményeket feltételezve a 30 kg·ha–1 felvétele 66 évet, a 90 kg·ha–1 fitoremediációja mintegy 200 évet venne igénybe. A napraforgó föld feletti termése szennyezett talajon maximálisan kb. 10 g Pb, 24 g Cr, 100 g Cu és 330 g Zn elemet vont ki a talajból ha-onként. A 270 kg·ha–1 talajtisztítás tehát 27 ezer Pb-évet, 11 ezer Cr-évet a Cr (VI)-kezelésben, 2700 Cu-évet, illetve 818 Zn-évet igényelne. – A levéldiagnosztikai adatok alapján a napraforgó Ca- és Mg-túlsúlyt; enyhe N- K-, P- és Cu-, illetve kifejezett Zn-hiányt jelzett. Az abszolút Zn-hiány nem okozott terméscsökkenést azonban, mivel a P/Zn arány az optimális 50–150 körüli tartomány közelében maradt. Az 1 t kaszat + a hozzátartozó tányér és szár ún. fajlagos elemtartalma az alábbi volt: 34 kg N, 7 kg P (16 kg P2O5), 32 kg K (38 kg K2O), 66 kg Ca (92 kg CaO), 15 kg Mg (25 kg MgO) és 4–5 kg S. Adataink iránymutatóul szolgálhatnak a növény elemigényeinek becslésekor. A hazai szaktanácsadásban ajánlott 30 kg P2O5 fajlagos mutató kifogásolható, túltrágyázásra ösztönöz. – A kísérlet 4. éve után NH4-acetát+EDTA-oldható formában találtuk a karbonátos homoktalaj szántott rétegében a Cr átlagosan 0,5%-át a Cr(III)-kezelésben, illetve mintegy 1%-át a Cr(VI)-kezelésben, a Se 1,5%-át. A Cr(VI) és a Se az altalajba mosódhatott, illetve részben megkötődhetett. A Cu, Pb és Zn elemek bevitt mennyiségének átlagosan 1/3-át találtuk oldható formában.

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