The concentrations of Th in samples of crystalline rock from three drillcore sections were analysed independently by instrumental neutron activation analysis and by chemical separation and alpha spectroscopy. The two methods show good general agreement over an approximate concentration range of 1 to 100 ppm Th. Variations in results between the two methods are not of a systematic nature and probably arise from sample heterogeneity. The results confirm the reliability of both methods and provide a useful comparison of the standards and reference materials used. The study indicates that, in cases where Th isotopic information is not required, the simpler and more rapid neutron activation analysis provides a satisfactory method.
Authors:D. Pant, G. Chaugule, K. Gupta, P. Kulkarni, P. Gurba, P. Janardan, R. Changrani, P. Dey, P. Pathak, D. Prabhu, A. Kanekar, and V. Manchanda
This paper deals with the optimization of experimental conditions for the estimation of Np in spent fuel dissolver solution
using 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) as extractant. The quantitative extraction of Np from the dissolver solution employing
0.5 M HTTA/xylene was followed by its estimation by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) after
stripping it from the organic phase with 8 M HNO3. The reliability of the method was checked by standard addition technique. The method is precise and accurate yielding Np
analytical recovery of 99 ± 1%.
Digital signal processors are now available commercially for incorporation into high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. In this work, we have compared throughput, peak resolution and peak stability found in two Canberra 2060 Digital Spectrum Processors with a conventional analog processing setup in our laboratory. We have made the comparisons for five separate high purity germanium detectors which provide a range in detector size and construction. In addition, the range of input count rates chosen for study reflect those likely to be encountered in NAA. Our initial results indicate the performance to be detector specific and highly dependent on DSP setup parameters.
Authors:A. Kuno, R. Santos, M. Matsuo, and B. Takano
Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to natural chromite samples from ophiolite complexes in the Philippines. Chemical and structural characterization of the chromite samples was also carried out using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The Mössbauer spectra of the samples consisted of quadrupole doublets ascribable to Fe3+ in octahedral site, Fe3+ in tetrahedral site, and Fe2+ in tetrahedral site. The relative percentage of Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions suggested that these Philippine samples were formed under relatively high oxygen fugacity.
Gamma-rays emitted from the surfaces of atmosphere-free extraterrestrial bodies such as asteroids, planets, or moons, can be measured to determine their chemical surface composition. Gamma-rays are emitted from naturally radioactive elements and, in their majority, are induced by the interaction of the energetic galactic cosmic particle radiation. Neutrons of the secondary hadron cascade contribute considerably to the gamma-ray line surface fluxes via nonelastic scattering and neutron-capture reactions. In principle, planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy resembles laboratory applications of prompt activation techniques. However, the evaluation of an orbital gamma-ray spectrum of other bodies than the Moon is difficult, as comparisons to so-called ground truth values, which functioned as standards, are not possible. Future planetary exploration missions will require the evaluation of recorded gamma-ray spectra without such standards. Therefore, in an attempt to overcome some of these difficulties, prompt gamma-ray spectra of planetary constituents were measured in a set of laboratory experiments with neutron-generator and cyclotron produced neutrons of energies up to 78 MeV. The significance of neutron-capture and nonelastic scattering gamma-ray lines for the characterization of major elements were established, and the application of the results to planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy of asteroids is discussed.
The transition of cubic indium hydroxide to cubic indium oxide has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis complimented
with hot-stage Raman spectroscopy. Thermal analysis shows the transition of In(OH)3 to In2O3 occurs at 219 °C. The structure and morphology of In(OH)3 synthesised using a soft chemical route at low temperatures was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.
A topotactical relationship exists between the micro/nano-cubes of In(OH)3 and In2O3. The Raman spectrum of In(OH)3 is characterised by an intense sharp band at 309 cm−1 attributed to ν1 In–O symmetric stretching mode, bands at 1137 and 1155 cm−1 attributed to In-OH δ deformation modes, bands at 3083, 3215, 3123 and 3262 cm−1 assigned to the OH stretching vibrations. Upon thermal treatment of In(OH)3, new Raman bands are observed at 125, 295, 488 and 615 cm−1 attributed to In2O3. Changes in the structure of In(OH)3 with thermal treatment is readily followed by hot-stage Raman spectroscopy.
The thermal denaturation of β-lactoglobulin in the presence of urea and alkylurea solutions were measured. In the presence
of a high concentration of urea this protein shows not only heat but also cold denaturation. For studying the effect of temperature
two methods were used, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and UV-spectroscopy. DSC provides direct model-independent
determination of the transition enthalpy in comparison with UV-spectroscopy, which gives only apparent or van't Hoff enthalpy
of transition. The UV-melting curves were analyzed on the basis of a two-state approximation. The apparent standard enthalpies
of thermal denaturation, ΔHapp.o
, were compared with calorimetric ones.
Authors:R. Keyser, W. Hensley, T. Twomey, and D. Upp
The necessity to monitor international commercial transportation for illicit nuclear materials resulted in the installation
of many nuclear radiation detection systems in Portal Monitors. To overcome the difficulty of innocent alarms due to a large
content of natural radioactivity or medical nuclides, Department of Homeland Security (DHS) supported the writing of the ANSI
N42.38 standard (Performance Criteria for Spectroscopy-Based Portal Monitors used for Homeland Security) to define the performance
of a portal monitor with nuclide identification capabilities, called a Spectroscopy Portal Monitor. To accomplish the necessary
performance, several different HPGe detector configurations were modeled using MCNP for the horizontal field of view (FOV)
and vertical linearity of response over the detection zone of 5 meters by 4.5 meters for 661 keV as representative of the
expected nuclides of interest. The configuration with the best result was built and tested. The results for the FOV as a function
of energy and the linearity show good agreement with the model and performance exceeding the requirements of N42.38.
Sensitivity data for low energy photon spectroscopy used in photon activation analysis are compiled and compared with those
for classical gamma-spectroscopy. All elements of the periodic table with a few exceptions were irradiated with 30 MeV-bremsstrahlung
of a linear electron accelerator. Low energy photon spectra were taken with a LEP-detector as well as with a coaxial Ge(Li)-detector.
Resulting data were processed by computer. The results show that in some cases low energy photon spectroscopy used in photon
activation analysis provides higher sensitivity than can be achieved by classical gamma-spectroscopy.
Portable handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (pXRF) is very effective and widely used technique for chemical analysis in field of archaeometry. The most advantageous feature of this technique is the possibility of analysing objects, artefacts on the spot without any sample-taking. In this study raw materials of 31 buckles from 7th century AD made of various kinds of bronze and silver alloys were analyzed to check similarities or differences between these objects via chemical analysis. Concentration ratios and distributions of alloying (Cu, Sn, Pb, Ag) and minor elements (Sb, Bi, Zn, Au) in material of bronze artifacts may have useful information suggesting important data about provenance and technology. Our recent study 27 bronze and 4 silver buckles were analyzed by pXRF and the results were used in statistical evaluation in order to get closer to provenance of raw materials and alloying technologies.