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The “próstaja mova” is one of the written languages used by both Ukrainians and Belorussians during the 16th and 17th centuries. In this article it is argued that its name is based on a calque of German Gemeinsprache, die gemeine Sprache, a term from the Reformation age. The „prostaja mova” was based on the Ruthenian (Ukrainian and Belorussian) chancery language and developed into a literary language because of its growing polyfunctionality, its increasingly superregional character, and its stylistic variability. The norms of the “prostaja mova” were based on its common usage, not on codification. We discuss the role of Church Slavonic and Polish elements on the different levels of this language and try to show that a “prototypical” text written in the “prostaja mova” was a translation from a real or only virtual Polish text, consisting in the “Ruthenization” of its phonology and morphology and, if it was a written text, in a change of the alphabets - the lexicon and the syntax, instead, remained mainly on a Polish basis. Until the 18th century the Polish language itself had gained so much importance among the Ruthenian gentry that the “prostaja mova” had lost its main addressee and was restricted only to some homiletic and cathechetic works for the common people of the Greek-Catholic Church.

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The object of the examination is a typical office building of the 1990s, owned by a multinational company -Siemens- dedicated to energy awareness. The building also meets the energy efficiency category ‘A’ under the 7/2006 TNM Hungarian regulations concerning the energy performance definition of buildings. However, demand has emerged to implement additional changes to reduce energy usage whilst keeping the current climate comfort or even improving it. International experience forecasts around 30% energy saving potential due to optimization of the building automation and energy management system, and thus the interaction and collaboration between the building geometry, structures and services systems. The project has been built in the IDA ICE complex building energy simulation program. Running a one-year dynamic simulation will provide data that can be compared with the measured data of the actual building, so the model can be adjusted and validated to real data. After the calibration it is now possible to test the ideas under safe conditions, in a virtual surrounding. Once a particular vision of the model is proven to work effectively, it is possible to apply this to the real building control management as well.

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Abstract  

Reviewing the current status of real-time correction of counting losses in nuclear pulse spectroscopy, the pileup problem is identified as the last question not resolved satisfactorily up to now. Correction of pileup losses in provided, at least in principle, by the classical pulse generator method, however, severe limitations in test frequency prohibit its application to real-time correction of counting losses. A solution is offered by the novel principle of the virtual pulse generator which obviates the shortcomings of the classical method simply by not introducing pulses into the spectroscopy system. Instead, the probability for pileup-free pulse processing is determined by suitable tests of the system status at arbitrarily high test frequencies. After a discussion of the principles of the new method and its application to a real-time correction system experimental evidence is provided for the complete correction of counting losses of more than 98% under conditions of stationary as well as variable counting rates up to the limit of stable operation of the underlying spectroscopy system which is 800 000 c/s for an experimental high-rate gamma spectrometer.

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Abstract  

Present-day globalization means many different kinds of change. It is, moreover, happening at different rates in different places around the world. All globalization’s forms, however, depend on new tele-technologies like email and the Internet. Among cultural features being transformed is literature. This is so both because literature has a more and more subordinate role, around the world, in relation to film, television, computer games, cellphone messages, blogs, and videos, and also because the rapidity of literature’s translation and diffusion has brought into existence Goethe’s and Marx/Engels’ dream of a “world literature.” New technologies have also transformed the conditions of literary study by making so much literature and so many aids to literary study available online. Nevertheless, as a close look at Wallace Stevens’s “The River of River in Connecticut” shows, literature, in the sense of printed novels, poems, and plays, still remains one of the premier ways to create “virtual realities.” Literature also uses language in subtle and complex ways that are difficult, if not impossible, to match in other media.

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Abstract  

Fast neutron activation analysis experiments were performed to investigate the analytical possibilities and prospective utilization of short-lived activation products. A rapid pneumatic transfer system for use with neutron generators has been installed and applied for detecting radionuclides with a half-life from 300 ms to 20 s. The transport time for samples of total mass of 1–4 g is between 130 and 160 ms for pressurized air of 0.1–0.4 MPa. The reproducibility of transport times is less than 2%. The employed method of correcting time-dependent counting losses is based on the virtual pulse generator principle. The measuring equipment consists of CAMAC modules and a special gating circuit. Typical time distributions of counting losses are presented. The same 14 elements were studied by the conventional activation method (single irradiation and single counting) by both a typical pneumatic transport system (run time 3 s) and the fast pneumatic transport facility. Furthermore, the influence of the cyclic activation technique on the elemental sensitivities was investigated.

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In the last decade considerable progress was achieved in the theory of tree shakers used for fruit harvesting. New calculation methods were developed including the vibrating soil mass which enabled the calculation of effective soil masses on a strictly physical basis. However, these earlier investigations did not treat with the effect of stroke frequency. In these investigations, first of all, the friction behavior of the soil mass is discussed as a function of stroke frequency. It turned out that the decrease and shifting of the soil deformation waves as a function of distance measured from the tree trunk are the main sources of an intensive friction between the neighbouring soil layers. As a consequence, the logarithmic decrement (and not the damping coefficient) of the soil will be more or less constant as a function of stroke frequency, at least in the investigated frequency range. At lower attachment heights the soil friction losses dominate independently on stroke frequency. The virtual spring constant of the soil body is also frequency dependent. Due to the presence of combined frictional and viscous losses, the energy method seems to be the best one to analyze the effect of stroke frequency on the various operational parameters.

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Inorganic ion-exchangers in radioactive waste management

Part XVI: Uptake of some metal phosphates (stannic and zirconium) for 134Cs

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Shuddhodan P. Mishra, Diwakar Tiwari, Shailesh Kumar Prasad, R. S. Dubey, and Manisha Mishra

Summary  

The uptake of indigenously synthesized amorphous stannic and zirconium phosphate was assessed for, one of the important fission fragment, cesium from aqueous solutions using a radiotracer technique. A virtual increase in sorptive concentration (from 1.0 . 10-8 to 1.0 . 10-2 mol . dm-3) and pH (from 2.4 to 10.2) and temperature (from 303 to 333 K) enhanced the uptake of cesium on stannic phosphate. However, the extremely high degree of uptake of cesium on zirconium phosphate was almost unaffected with the dilution beyond 10-5 mol . dm-3 and pH (i.e., from 2.4 to 10.2) and temperature (from 303 to 323 K). Irreversible uptake occurring for these solids follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the presence of several complexing agents viz., sulphate, phosphate, glycine and EDTA did not affect appreciably the uptake of cesium on zirconium phosphate but it did affect for stannic phosphate system. Both these solids showed good radiation stability towards a 11.1 GBq Ra-Be neutron source having neutron flux ca. 3.2 . 106 n . cm-2 . s-1 and associated with a nominalg-dose of ca. 1.72 Gy/h, at least for the uptake of cesium.

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Abstract  

In the event of a radioactive disaster, one of the biggest tasks is to estimate the radiation dosage received by people to determine the actions of emergency response teams. The first and the most rapid screening method of internally contaminated people in case of an emergency response is to perform in-vivo measurements for gamma-emitters. Development of virtual gamma-ray calibration techniques will be critical for emergency invivo measurements because there are inadequate numbers of phantom types to approximate all body shapes and sizes. The purpose of this project was to find a reliable way to estimate the efficiency of gamma-systems using Monte Carlo computations, and to validate that efficiency by making measurements of a standard geometry. Two geometries, a 5-ml ampoule and a Bottle Manikin Absorption (BOMAB) phantom head, spiked with 67Ga were used as standard geometries. The radioactive objects are measured at a number of distances from a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and the experimental efficiency for our gamma-spectrometry system is determined. The same set of experiments was then modeled using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). The conclusion of this project is that computationally derived detector efficiency calibrations can be comparable to those derived experimentally from physical standards.

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Abstract

Background and aims: With the growing number of virtual sites and easy access to them, as well as increasing popularity of the game, online poker could foster addiction. The aim of the current inquiry was to gauge susceptibility to behavioural addiction in online and traditional poker players. Methods: Ninety-six online poker players and 35 traditional players were tested on the basis of the “Components model” for addiction (Griffiths, 2005). Using a Likert scale, ratings on six components were examined: salience, conflict, mood modification, withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, and relapse. Results: The traditional players scored higher than online players on measures of conflict, mood modification, and relapse. While none of the traditional players were at risk, the majority of them (94.7%) were symptomatic. Two online players were at risk, 67.7% symptomatic and 30.2% asymptomatic. No significant correlations have emerged between the amount and history of poker playing and the addiction scores. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that most traditional players are prone to behavioural addiction while the majority of the online players are also symptomatic.

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Abstract

Background and aims

Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior.

Methods

Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents' perceptions of problematic use.

Results

The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use.

Conclusions

The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to “virtual addictions”.

Open access