Authors:Aleksey Pavlovich Anisimov and Anatoliy Jakovlevich Ryzhenkov
This article is devoted to research of philosophical discussions about animal rights which have affected on content of international law and national legal systems. This has manifested itself in the gradually recognition of the rights of wild and domestic animals. The authors provide classification of these rights and, according to criteria of their scope, distinguish three groups of wild animals and seven groups of domestic animals (companions, circus, agricultural, sport, experimental, zoo and service animals). Domestic animals have both vested rights (protection against cruelty and to a favorable environment) and, to a different extent, the right to good treatment, choice of owner, good health (veterinary care), adequate burial and comfortable transfer – these mainly dependent on the owner’s goodwill. The article includes evidences that the current situation with a different scope of subjective rights of different groups of animals resembles the situation with a different scope of rights of certain groups of population in the age of feudal fragmentation. The authors also comment about gradual change and future of the situation.
Shallow land burial is routinely used for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Natural processes causing leaching
of radionuclides can lead to contamination of surrounding ground water and soil by the radionuclides. The comparative leachability
of radionuclides U(nat), 226Ra, 228Ra and Th(nat) from the soil of a radioactive waste disposal site, by ground water was evaluated. The probability of leaching was obtained
in the following order Ra (≈77%) > U (≈40%) > Th (≈20%). Observed ratios (OR) were calculated to correlate leachability of
radionuclides to that of major cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. The leaching of the radionuclides was seen to be dependent on Ca2+ and SO42− leached from the soil. This study provides sitespecific leachability of radionuclides, that can be used as indicator of the
tendency for migration or retention in soil. It can play an important role during an unforeseen accident like breach of containment
at the waste disposal site leading to contamination of soil and ground water and causing hazard to public via drinking water
Authors:M. Busetto, L. Giordani, A. Brandone, C. Cattaneo, and A. Mazzucchi
Bone is an important mineral source for the entire organism especially for Ca, P, Na and trace elements like Sr, Mg, Zn and
it is the reservoir for the storage and mobilization of many important ions required for the metabolic activity of the organism.
The concentration of these elements are influenced by the individual diet and the content of some trace elements can be utilized
as indicators of the diet of ancient populations. Bones from three differents archaeological sites found in Lombardy, Northern
Italy, were investigated: (A) Roman necropolis found in Milan active from the 1st century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D; (B)
Burial of the Longobard family found in Campione d'Italia (North of Lombardy) active between the 7th and 9th century A.D.;
(C) Medieval necropolis of a Longobard community, found in a village near Cremona (SE of Lombardy) active in the 7th century
A.D. Structures of bones and their trace element content seem to put in evidence on some differences in the way of life of
the three investigated groups.
The paper is a brief account about archaeological investigations and excavations from the mid 1960s on in the territory of the Provostry Church which was founded by King St. Stephan in the early 11th century. The new excavations contributed a lot to the knowledge of the Romanesque form of the West part of the Church which could be only partially investigated. Its form and even its construction in St Stephen's times is uncertain. Only the fact is proved that there was an early building on the West of the Church, which was already altered as early as the 12th century. South of the Church, elements of Gothic butressing system were revealed: fundations, corresponding to the 14th century nave vaults as well as piles belonging to the foundations of Gothic nave piers. The excavation of an eastern chapel opening from the South aisle is not yet finished. South of the Church the investigation of the North wing of a cloister belonging to the monastery and existing in the 12th-14th centuries, together with burials, was begun.
Authors:Barbara Szabó, Tivadar M. Tóth, and Félix Schubert
Volcanic successions of the Kecel Basalt Formation (KBF) occur in the southern part of the Pannonian Basin. As a result of periodic submarine eruptions, the basaltic and pyroclastic rock horizons were intercalated with layers of the Late Miocene Endrod Marl Formation, which is regarded as one of the most important hydrocarbon source rocks in the area. The KBF was discovered through almost 30 wells between 2,200 and 2,900 meters of depth. Due to the high fracture porosity, some parts of the formation show good reservoir characteristics and act as important migration pathways of hydrocarbon-bearing fluids. Since the reservoir is presumably fracture-controlled, this study concentrates on the evolution of fractures crosscutting the rock body. Based on textural and mineralogical features, four distinct vein types can be distinguished, of which the first three types are discussed in this paper. Beside calcite, quartz, feldspar, and chlorite, the veins are cemented by various zeolite minerals. The vertical dimension of the dominant zeolite zone indicates the burial-diagenetic type of zeolite zonation and suggests subsidence of the subaqueous basalt after formation.
Authors:Georgina Lukoczki, Tamás Budai, and Tibor Németh
Sideritic—kaolinitic and green clay layers were previously reported from the Mecsek Mountains (SW Hungary) as indicators of Tethyan volcanism in the otherwise germanotype Middle Triassic succession. The aim of the present study is to provide a review and a critical re-evaluation of the previously published data on both the sideritic—kaolinitic layers (the so-called “Mánfa Siderite”) and the green clay layers. New results of mineralogical investigation of the green clay layers are also presented. The Middle Triassic volcanic origin of the “Mánfa Siderite” cannot be confirmed. In addition to a possible volcanic contribution, the sideritic—kaolinitic layers were probably formed in a freshwater swamp under humid, tropical climatic conditions, whereby weathering in an organic-rich, acidic environment led to the formation of “underclays” and siderite in the coal-bearing formations of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic age. These layers were probably tectonically placed over Middle Triassic carbonates. The illitic green clay layers intercalated in the Middle Triassic dolostone may represent terrigenous deposits, and the illite mineralogy probably is the result of burial diagenesis of detrital clays.
The Slovene ballad Animals Bury the Hunter is an animal narrative song of jocular character. It tells of the burial of a hunter and of a funeral procession not composed of humans but wild animals (a bear, foxes, hares, a wolf, cranes and partridges, song birds, etc.) who seem to derive great joy from the event. The analysis of the song's 31 variants reveals the changes made to the song over the course of time, as it survived through different historical periods and spread throughout Slovenia. I attempt to show that the ballad was used as a model for painted beehive panels featuring the same motif. In addition to the analysis, I am concerned with the sociological and ethical elements of the ballad. The paper proposes at least three possible theses: 1. The song is part of the conception of a topsy-turvy world, where the roles and mutual relationships of people and animals are reversed in an ironic sociological view of the world. 2. The song is a critique of one class by another: peasants mocking hunters who belong to a different social stratum. 3. The song is a representation of “pre-Cartesian” times, when animals were not “mere machines” without feelings, to be treated by man as objects with no ethical significance. It points to the ethical aspects of the human treatment of animals.
Through conflicts of opinions inside the Bratislava Jewish religious community, the author monitors changed relations toward Judaism after the Holocaust.
The current form of the community was due to Regulation 231-1945 concerning “the arrangement of the conditions of the Jewish faith members in Slovakia”. This resulted in religious, economic, and organizational centralization.
After the 1968 occupation, those who stayed behind in Bratislava concluded that due to the emigration of the young and middle generations, the community lost its future and under the newly established conditions it was losing its past too. The Velvet revolution helped to overcome passivity existing until then. An informal gathering called Jewish forum helped to build and revive the Jewish identity. The status of the present-day Judaism can be illustrated by the fact that 36.6 percent of funerals in the course of 2001–2013 were done by cremation prohibited in Orthodox Judaism. It has been a manifestation of solidarity with the “burials” of those killed in concentration camps; but it is also a kind of revolt against God who did not prevent the Shoa.
Today both individuals and families create their own model based on the traditions that they choose for themselves. Practicing such customs does not follow from Judaism, but it is an expression of one’s affiliation with the community and its traditions.
the Carpathian Basin, and those that were assimilated throughout their wanderings. 1 Subsequently, Ildikó K. Hankó and István Kiszely published the analysis of the finds from the first credibly excavated inhumated burials of the biritual cemetery of