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Europe is not only the land of origin, but also the principal keeper of social rights, since it is associated with the concept of Europeanism. The obvious social restrictions in Hungary as well as in other countries of Europe in recent years make it absolutely reasonable to examine to what social-economic context the discernible withdrawal of welfare services provided by the state is attributable. The similar manifestations are supported by no means by the same system of social conditions. As to its basis and dating back to its historical origin, the current social policy of the EU is framed in the spirit of the conceptual system of the social state. The Fundamental Rights Charter (just as the “European Constitution Treaty”, as part of which it may become mandatory) does not reflect either the labour society or Europe of the peoples, but the conceptions of the capital, of political classes and eurocracy. Nevertheless: considering the power relations of global capitalism, we need to appreciate as an apparent actuality that in the midst of these relations the charter insists not only on the requirement of European unity, but also on a modernised version of the social conceptual system. The purpose of this treatise has been to highlight that social objectives cannot be treated as isolated from their economic and social context. We should not risk balance by the maintenance and preservation of a social-organisational framework via overspending, which altogether contradicts the possibility of development and the sustainability of equilibrated development.

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Treating people as equals is one of the main aims of constitutional democracies. Numerous examples prove the adverse effects if a state violates the equality principles relating to ethnic minorities and religious groups. Here is a lesson from Hungary. The Hungarian Constitutional Court (hereinafter: HCC) is not engaged in adjudicating concrete ‘cases and controversies’, but seemingly reviews the constitutionality of laws. The Constitution lays down the fundamental tenets relating to religious groups, churches, ethnic minorities and the principles of equality in general. Thus, the question is how the problems of religions and minorities are reflected in the constitutional case-law.The main theses of this article are following. First, based on historical facts the HCC provides preferential treatment for so-called historical churches. Second, in cases involving Roma the HCC does not consider the historical facts and social reality thus, the discrimination of Roma does not appear in the jurisprudence. Third, the unequal protection of churches and Roma by the state results in advantages being provided where the constitutional reasons of preferential treatment are absent while the state remains inactive where the promotion of the principles of equality would be most necessary.

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The article examines the new trends of Hungarian constitutionalism, which have been realized in the new Fundamental Law and that raises some questions with regard to, among other things, the hierarchy of sources of law. Especially the cardinal laws have been the subject of criticisms both within the Hungarian doctrine that by experts in constitutional law and international organizations in the Western world. From the point of view of comparative constitutional law, it should be noted that reinforced laws are provided in many constitutions, in both Western and Eastern Europe. In order to better understand the role of cardinal laws is useful to consider, first of all and in addition to the new Fundamental Law, the system of pre-existing organic laws of Hungary. Furthermore, it is also interesting to consider, on the one hand, the first cardinal laws approved, and, on the other hand, the orientations of the Hungarian Constitutional Court on organic laws prior to the adoption of the new Fundamental Law.

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“The right of poor persons” or legal aid, as part of the free access to justice and a fundamental right of the citizens, represents one of the most important components of the right to defence in proceedings brought before the European Union’s courts, if we include also the exemption of taxes and other financial obligations that can be ordered whenever individuals for financial reasons, cannot afford hiring a lawyer, no matter the object of the dispute, such as: civil, labour, administrative etc.This right is provided for both in the European primary and secondary legislation, including in Article 47 para. 3 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, and also at the national level, namely in the national constitutions and legislations of the 28 Member States.Establishing minimum common rules relating to legal aid for disputes by the Council Directive 2003/8/EC in January 2003 to improve access to justice in cross-border disputes is considered to be a cornerstone in respecting the principle of a good representation of the individuals in front of the European courts, pointing out the humanism of the European judicial system.

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Literature Bánkuti , Miklós , Halmai , Gábor and Scheppele , Kim Lane ‘ Between Revolution and Constitution: The Roles of the Hungarian Constitutional Court ’ in Tóth

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. Arato , Andrew and Miklósi , Zoltán , Constitution Making and Transitional Politics in Hungary in Miller , L. and Aucoin , L. (eds): Framing the state in times of transition: case studies in constitution making (United States Institute of

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Inheritance of male sterility and fertility restoration of the A 1 system of cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterility in pearl millet was investigated using 12 crosses among three diverse male sterile lines (A-lines) and four diverse restorers (R-lines). Individual plants from R- lines were used to make crosses on A-lines. The segregation pattern of male sterile (S) and male fertile (F) plants observed in F 2 and BC 1 in two seasons at ICRISAT, Patancheru was suggestive more likely of a single-gene control of male sterility and fertility restoration. However, a 3-gene model of male sterility/fertility restoration where dominant alleles at any two of the three duplicate complimentary loci will lead to male fertility could not be ruled out, nor could be ruled out a 2-gene control with duplicate interaction. There was indication of variability even within a highly inbred R-line for fertility restoration gene(s). Depending on the genetic constitution of the R-lines at these loci, even the 3-gene model can lead to single-gene segregation ratios as observed in most of the F 2s and backcrosses, and 2-gene ratios as observed in a few F 2s and backcrosses. The deviations from these expected ratios in some of the crosses influenced by modifiers and environmental conditions generally resulted from the excess of fertile plants in the rainy season or excess of sterile plants in the dry season, the more so in crosses involving an A-line which has been reported to be relatively more unstable for male sterility.

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Genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot produces a graphical display of results that facilitates a better understanding of complex genotype-by-environment interaction in multi-environment trials of breeding and agronomic experiments. However, the full potential and weaknesses of this powerful tool are not fully understood by breeders, agronomists, entomologists and pathologists. The objective of this paper was to review the usefulness of this statistical tool and enumerate some of its weaknesses. Its main application has so far been in the analysis of multi-environment data. It has been used to analyze the performance of crop cultivars under multiple stress environments, from which ideal cultivars, mega-environments, and core testing sites were identified. More recently, GGE biplot has been employed in genetic analysis of diallel data to estimate the combining abilities and identify heterotic groups among inbred parents. Genotype-by-trait biplot has also been utilized in trait profile analysis, and in identification of traits that are reliable for indirect selection of a target primary trait. Two major shortcomings of this tool are (i) failure to identify more than two distinct, contrasting groups in diallel studies and (ii) lack of statistical tests for most of its graphical displays. Other aspects of GGE biplot that need further study and development are (i) estimation of genetic variances, covariances, and heritability, including the analysis of data generated from North Carolina Designs I, II, and III as well as other genetic designs, considering their importance in plant breeding programs; (ii) analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) data for proper understanding of the genetic constitution of each individual plant or line; and (iii) analysis of Genotype-by-pathogen or insect strain interaction data. Nevertheless, GGE biplot has helped greatly in the accurate analysis and interpretation of data from breeding and agronomic field evaluation experiments.

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The knowledge about genetic diversity in the wild relatives of wheat provides useful information for breeding programs and gene pool management. In the present study, an assessment of agro-morphological diversity and molecular variability among 70 accessions of Triticum, belonging to T. boeoticum, T. urartu, T. durum and T. aestivum species, collected from different regions of Iran was made. According to phenotypic analysis, all traits except peduncle length, stem diameter and the number of seeds per spike indicated a high level of diversity among studied accessions. Also, principal component analysis identified six components that explained 87.53% of the total variation in agro-morphological traits. In molecular analysis, 15 start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism primers produced 166 bands, out of which, 162 (97.59%) were polymorphic. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated the 63% of the variation resided among populations. The maximum value of polymorphism information content (PIC), the observed (Na) and effective (Ne) number of alleles, Nie’s gene diversity (He) and Shannon’s information index (I) was detected for T. boeoticum than the other species. The SCoT-based tree revealed three different groups corresponding to the genomic constitution in Triticum germplasm, which was in part confirmed by STRUCTURE and principal coordinate (PCoA) analyses. Our results indicated a remarkable level of genetic diversity among studied Iranian Triticum species, especially T. boeoticum, which can be of interest for future breeding and other analyses associated with future studies of the wild relatives of wheat. More importantly, our results revealed that SCoT markers could be used to accurate evaluate genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among different Triticum species.

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Absztrakt

Az életmód változásával és a gyorséttermi láncok elterjedésével egyre nagyobb problémát jelent az elhízás az egész világon. Indiában a férfiak 31%-a, a nők 29%-a túlsúlyos, és az elhízás az utóbbi 11 évben növekvő tendenciát mutat. Az elhízás növeli számos betegség kialakulásának esélyét, mint például a szív- és érrendszeri betegségek, refluxbetegség, gastrointestinalis tumorok és alvási apnoe. Műtétek során a szövődményekkel még nem járó elhízás is súlyos komplikációkat okozhat. Az Ájurvédában a betegségek kialakulásáért a 3 dosha – vata, pitta, kapha – egyensúlyának felborulása a felelős. A 3 dosha aránya egyénenként változik, és meghatározza az egyéni testalkatot. Egy indiai kutatócsoport kimutatta, hogy az ájurvédikus testtípus-besorolás kapcsolatba hozható a gyulladásos és oxidatívstressz-faktorok génjeivel, a DNS-metilációval és a cardiovascularis betegségek kialakulásának esélyeivel. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(34), 1349–1352.

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