The Article gives a general overview of the Hungarian constitutional and legal framework for the participation of national minorities in the decision-making. The relatively low number of people belonging to national minorities in Hungary as well as the scattered patterns of their settlement and some aspects of the Hungarian legal traditions underlie the choice of the so called personal autonomy approach. The minorities can establish via a special electing mechanism local and national self-governments enjoying consultative and truly public law type rule-making and administrative competences. Having given the proper interpretation of the relevant article of the Constitution, the Constitutional Court also contributed to the birth of the Act on the Rights of Minorities. The basic reason behind the creation of a very complicated, multilevel institutional complex is that in this way, educational and cultural needs of minorities of different scale can be represented in a relatively coherent manner. This does not exclude at all the possibility of bringing modifications to the legal text in the light of a decade's experience.
The article examines the new trends of Hungarian constitutionalism, which have been realized in the new Fundamental Law and that raises some questions with regard to, among other things, the hierarchy of sources of law. Especially the cardinal laws have been the subject of criticisms both within the Hungarian doctrine that by experts in constitutional law and international organizations in the Western world. From the point of view of comparative constitutional law, it should be noted that reinforced laws are provided in many constitutions, in both Western and Eastern Europe. In order to better understand the role of cardinal laws is useful to consider, first of all and in addition to the new Fundamental Law, the system of pre-existing organic laws of Hungary. Furthermore, it is also interesting to consider, on the one hand, the first cardinal laws approved, and, on the other hand, the orientations of the Hungarian Constitutional Court on organic laws prior to the adoption of the new Fundamental Law.
“The right of poor persons” or legal aid, as part of the free access to justice and a fundamental right of the citizens, represents one of the most important components of the right to defence in proceedings brought before the European Union’s courts, if we include also the exemption of taxes and other financial obligations that can be ordered whenever individuals for financial reasons, cannot afford hiring a lawyer, no matter the object of the dispute, such as: civil, labour, administrative etc.This right is provided for both in the European primary and secondary legislation, including in Article 47 para. 3 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, and also at the national level, namely in the national constitutions and legislations of the 28 Member States.Establishing minimum common rules relating to legal aid for disputes by the Council Directive 2003/8/EC in January 2003 to improve access to justice in cross-border disputes is considered to be a cornerstone in respecting the principle of a good representation of the individuals in front of the European courts, pointing out the humanism of the European judicial system.
Dans la pratique de catalogage en vigueur aux 17e–18e siècles, les soucis qu’on qualifierait aujourd’hui de bibliothéconomiques ne se sont pas affirmés. Cette affirmation porte également sur les bibliothèques dont le fonctionnement est déterminé par des prescriptions d’ordre monacal (constitutiones). Puisque les possesseurs ne pouvaient pas prévoir à long terme l’enrichissement de leurs bibliothèques, les possibilités d’acquérir de nouveaux livres sur des critères thématiques furent extrêmement limitées. Seulement une partie infime des bibliothèques fut soumise à un classement thématique détaillée (exécuté soit par le possesseur en personne, soit par son employé).La structure interne des bibliothèques, ainsi que les transformations thématiques de leur corpus constituent une source historique importante, puisqu’elles permettent d’étudier les tendances générales de la réception des idées occidentales dans la Hongrie de la période en question. Les deux phénomènes que nous devons impérativement retenir sont d’abord la sécularisation (la baisse de la participation des livres théologiques ou ecclésiastiques), puis la formation des collections patriotica (consacrées á l’histoire nationale).
The importance of the early translations, copied or printed, derived from a parallel process that fostered the development of a standard version of the Hungarian language and the norms of literary Hungarian. In Hungary Benedek Komjáti, Gábor Pesti and János Sylvester fulfilled the Erasmus program of translating and distributing the Hungarian translations of the Holy Scriptures. They knew that to achieve this they had to find the appropriate linguistic form. Therefore, they wrote also pieces in diff erent genres and did prepare Bible translations only. Due to the changes brought about by Reformation people needed new books in the vernacular in all areas of life, for example school books, catechisms, church constitution (Kirchenordnung) and of course the Bible. In the century of the Reformation, the Hungarian Protestant ministers who knew languages followed Erasmus’ example and felt their duty to translate the Holy Scriptures into Hungarian. at the end of the century the first complete Bible in Hungarian was published in Vizsoly in 1590, which was prepared by a circle of scholars. The first complete Catholic Bible translation was published in 1626 in Viennna thanks partly to György Káldi and partly to Péter Pázmány.
Arato , Andrew and Miklósi , Zoltán , Constitution Making and Transitional Politics in Hungary in Miller , L. and Aucoin , L. (eds): Framing the state in times of transition: case studies in constitution making (United States Institute of
Az életmód változásával és a gyorséttermi láncok elterjedésével egyre nagyobb
problémát jelent az elhízás az egész világon. Indiában a férfiak 31%-a, a nők
29%-a túlsúlyos, és az elhízás az utóbbi 11 évben növekvő tendenciát mutat. Az
elhízás növeli számos betegség kialakulásának esélyét, mint például a szív- és
érrendszeri betegségek, refluxbetegség, gastrointestinalis tumorok és alvási
apnoe. Műtétek során a szövődményekkel még nem járó elhízás is súlyos
komplikációkat okozhat. Az Ájurvédában a betegségek kialakulásáért a 3 dosha –
vata, pitta, kapha – egyensúlyának felborulása a felelős. A 3 dosha aránya
egyénenként változik, és meghatározza az egyéni testalkatot. Egy indiai
kutatócsoport kimutatta, hogy az ájurvédikus testtípus-besorolás kapcsolatba
hozható a gyulladásos és oxidatívstressz-faktorok génjeivel, a DNS-metilációval
és a cardiovascularis betegségek kialakulásának esélyeivel. Orv. Hetil., 2016,
Authors:R.O. Akinwale, M.A.B. Fakorede, B. Badu-Apraku, and A. Oluwaranti
Genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot produces a graphical display of results that facilitates a better understanding of complex genotype-by-environment interaction in multi-environment trials of breeding and agronomic experiments. However, the full potential and weaknesses of this powerful tool are not fully understood by breeders, agronomists, entomologists and pathologists. The objective of this paper was to review the usefulness of this statistical tool and enumerate some of its weaknesses. Its main application has so far been in the analysis of multi-environment data. It has been used to analyze the performance of crop cultivars under multiple stress environments, from which ideal cultivars, mega-environments, and core testing sites were identified. More recently, GGE biplot has been employed in genetic analysis of diallel data to estimate the combining abilities and identify heterotic groups among inbred parents. Genotype-by-trait biplot has also been utilized in trait profile analysis, and in identification of traits that are reliable for indirect selection of a target primary trait. Two major shortcomings of this tool are (i) failure to identify more than two distinct, contrasting groups in diallel studies and (ii) lack of statistical tests for most of its graphical displays. Other aspects of GGE biplot that need further study and development are (i) estimation of genetic variances, covariances, and heritability, including the analysis of data generated from North Carolina Designs I, II, and III as well as other genetic designs, considering their importance in plant breeding programs; (ii) analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) data for proper understanding of the genetic constitution of each individual plant or line; and (iii) analysis of Genotype-by-pathogen or insect strain interaction data. Nevertheless, GGE biplot has helped greatly in the accurate analysis and interpretation of data from breeding and agronomic field evaluation experiments.
Authors:A. Pour-Aboughadareh, J. Ahmadi, A.A. Mehrabi, A. Etminan, and M. Moghaddam
The knowledge about genetic diversity in the wild relatives of wheat provides useful information for breeding programs and gene pool management. In the present study, an assessment of agro-morphological diversity and molecular variability among 70 accessions of Triticum, belonging to T. boeoticum, T. urartu, T. durum and T. aestivum species, collected from different regions of Iran was made. According to phenotypic analysis, all traits except peduncle length, stem diameter and the number of seeds per spike indicated a high level of diversity among studied accessions. Also, principal component analysis identified six components that explained 87.53% of the total variation in agro-morphological traits. In molecular analysis, 15 start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism primers produced 166 bands, out of which, 162 (97.59%) were polymorphic. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated the 63% of the variation resided among populations. The maximum value of polymorphism information content (PIC), the observed (Na) and effective (Ne) number of alleles, Nie’s gene diversity (He) and Shannon’s information index (I) was detected for T. boeoticum than the other species. The SCoT-based tree revealed three different groups corresponding to the genomic constitution in Triticum germplasm, which was in part confirmed by STRUCTURE and principal coordinate (PCoA) analyses. Our results indicated a remarkable level of genetic diversity among studied Iranian Triticum species, especially T. boeoticum, which can be of interest for future breeding and other analyses associated with future studies of the wild relatives of wheat. More importantly, our results revealed that SCoT markers could be used to accurate evaluate genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among different Triticum species.