Cognitive revolution, beginning from the fifties, has made cognition the central topic in psychology. In the past decades, however, individualistic cognitive psychology has often been criticized. Several theoretical attempts were performed so as to replace or amend the study of information processing with the socially and culturally determined meaning construction. Narrative psychology, which is based on the fundamental role that the narrative function plays in constructing and communicating meaning, is one of these attempts. The branch of narrative psychology as we understand it considers narrative to be a natural form of organizing experiences, which shapes internal world of humans and, in the same time, links them to their society and culture. Narrative exists before the actual story, and stories generated either spontaneously or elicited in interviews carry the psychological meaning of people's internal world, as well as these stories reflect their relation to the world. Elementary linguistic forms are analyzed in terms of the holistic narrative structure, which is held to be the carrier of the psychologically relevant material. Thus, linguistic structure is not an implementation of mental functioning, in other words, mental functioning is not a causal factor in the emergent linguistic structure. It is rather an expression of complex psychological states and processes in terms of which people organize the meanings of their world and of their own selves.
Authors:Azam Khodashenas Nikoo, Padmashekar, and Abdoullah Namdar
Many reasons can be offered for the employment of non-violence, it breaks the cycle of violence and counter-violence, and also it is the surest way of achieving public sympathy. It is the only method of struggle that is consistent with the teachings of the major religions. Non-violence can also be the basis for a way of life. It is consistent with a belief in the underlying unity of humankind. Truth and non-violence are not possible without a living belief in God. It is a fact that non-violent activism is more powerful and effective than violent activism. By the very law of nature all bad things are associated with violence, while all good things are associated with non-violence. Violent activities breed hatred in society, while non-violent activities elicit love. Violence is the way of destruction while non-violence is the way of construction. The program of Islam is divided to bring peace into three main phases: 1) peace with God, 2) peace within the community, and 3) peace with others. In the Qur’an peace is one of God’s names and the word sabr exactly expresses the notion of non-violence, as it is understood in modern times. Religion emphasizes that peace of mind comes from tolerance and contentment. In Jainism, non-violence is not limited to refraining from mental, verbal and physical injury to human beings. It encompasses abstaining from injury to all living beings – all animals and plants.
Authors:K. Kumagai, K. Kurobe, H. Zhong, J. Loenneke, R. Thiebaud, F. Ogita, and Takashi Abe
Previous studies reported that aerobic-type exercise such as walking or cycling with blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to elicit increases in leg muscle hypertrophy and strength, as well as improved aerobic capacity. Although previous studies investigated cardiovascular responses during a relatively short duration of exercise (∼5 min), the effects of prolonged leg muscular BFR have remained unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular effects of longer duration low intensity exercise combined with BFR. Eight men performed 30 min of exercise at 40% of a predetermined maximal oxygen uptake under both BFR and normal flow (CON) conditions. Cardiovascular parameters were measured at rest and every 10 min during exercise. The main findings were that 1) the SV and HR did not change significantly between 10 to 30 min of exercise in BFR and CON conditions, although BFR-induced reduction of SV and increased HR were found at 10 min exercise compared with normal flow, 2) blood pressure was increased at 10 min of exercise in BFR compared to the CON, however the blood pressure decreased gradually with BFR from 10 to 30 min of exercise, and 3) blood lactate and RPE increased gradually during exercise with BFR. In conclusion, our results suggest that the BFR-induced reduction of SV and increased HR within the first 10 min of exercise are representative of changes in these parameters.
The purpose of this study is to develop a prototype of a novel respiratory device that we validated and assessed clinically and examined the effect of prototype of respiratory device on blood pressure (BP).
Prototype of respiratory device (TU-Breath Training) was designed with pressure cuff and application software was created. The immediate effect of resisted breathing was determined in 20 adults with high BP (systolic BP ≥ 130 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg). A crossover study was designed. A total of 20 eligible participants were asked to sit quietly for 10 min. Heart rate (HR), BP, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured and recorded. After the resting period, all participants were randomized and counterbalanced for undergoing the set of inspiratory muscle training by TU-Breath Training and control group. A set of respiratory training were composed of 10 times per set for three sets, while the control group was asked to sit for 10 min.
After inspiratory training, both the systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly. Compared with control group, using TU-Breath Training decreased systolic BP (−7.00 ± 5.93 mmHg) and diastolic BP (−5.95 ± 8.88 mmHg), but did not show differences in HR and SpO2.
The study indicated that in high-BP participants, the prototype of respiratory device (TU-Breath Training) elicits decreased BP.
This paper examines the phenomenon of receptive multilingualism where speakers of two different languages communicate through each speaking his/her own language and understanding the other’s. Comprehension in such an interaction is aided by the speaker and the listener employing linguistic, discourse-pragmatic and other features which represent strategies of accommodation (i.e. reduction of linguistics dissimilarities). This phenomenon is not presented as an alternative to interpreting, but in the context of interpreters who work from or into a language which is closely related, but not identical to the language spoken by one of the participating clients. Background information is provided from language pairs with a high level of mutual intelligibility and the experiences of interpreters, while the focus of the data sample is on 23 interpreters who have accreditation in one, two or three of the following closely-related languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. Responses are elicited on the following: self-reported incidence of accommodation in non-interpreted interactions; linguistic and ethical protocols when a different, but closely-related language is used by a client; comments from clients about interpreters’ proficiency and ethnicity; attitudes on the distinctiveness of the three languages and future intelligibility. Informants’ linguistic behaviour is analysed according to the number of accreditations held and, in general, those with three accreditations report the highest levels of accommodation.
Authors:M. Pásztói, P. Misják, B. György, B. Aradi, T. G. Szabó, B. Szántó, M. Cs. Holub, Gy. Nagy, A. Falus, and E. I. Buzás
While the key initiating processes that trigger human autoimmune diseases remain enigmatic, increasing evidences support the concept that microbial stimuli are among major environmental factors eliciting autoimmune diseases in genetically susceptible individuals.
Here, we present an overview of evidences obtained through various experimental models of autoimmunity for the role of microbial stimuli in disease development. Disease onset and severity have been compared in numerous models under conventional, specific-pathogen-free and germ-free conditions. The results of these experiments suggest that there is no uniform scheme that could describe the role played by infectious agents in the experimental models of autoimmunity. While some models are dependent, others prove to be completely independent of microbial stimuli. In line with the threshold hypothesis of autoimmune diseases, highly relevant genetic factors or microbial stimuli induce autoimmunity on their own, without requiring further factors. Importantly, recent evidences show that colonization of germ-free animals with certain members of the commensal flora [such as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB)] may lead to autoimmunity. These data drive attention to the importance of the complex composition of gut flora in maintaining immune homeostasis. The intriguing observation obtained in autoimmune animal models that parasites often confer protection against autoimmune disease development may suggest new therapeutic perspectives of infectious agents in autoimmunity.
Based on the data collected by KNOLL Hungary Ltd. in Hungary in 1999, 37% of the adult population is overweight while 23% is obese. Inappropriate diet containing excess calories and physical inactivity are responsible for these statistical values. In their former studies, the authors investigated the effects of different stages of obesity on the cardiovascular system, and have verified that even moderate obesity elicits pathological geometric and functional changes in the heart. In the present study, effect of a half-year-long life-style modification program on the morphologic and functional characteristics of the heart was investigated in twenty-one obese women. Life-style modification contained a diet with reduced energy uptake (1000–1300 Cal/day) and a regular physical training of minimum 3–4 hours weekly. By the end of the sixth month the weight loss was 5.1 kg (5.9%) on an average. There was a marked reduction in cardiac dimensions measured by echocardiography, with a very slight, non-significant decrease in left ventricular internal diameter, and a marked, significant reduction in the left ventricular wall thickness. Decrease of the left ventricular muscle mass exceeded the decrease of body weight. A marked elevation was found in the E/A quotient that reflected a definite improvement in diastolic function. Results indicate that physical training programs have a favourable effect on the echocardiographic parameters, therefore the process is reversible even without a pharmacological intervention.
This project investigates two young professional translators’ problem-solving and decision-making behaviour during revision processes. It sets out to qualitatively describe the complexity of interplay involved in problem-solving and decision-making in translation revision, using think-aloud protocols as a research method. The data I elicited suggest that, for a revision point to occur, the translator first has to find a translation problem. However, the translation problem itself can evolve over time in the revision process in either a divergent or convergent manner. In other words, a single translation problem can be subdivided into several smaller problems and be tackled individually. Meanwhile, the translator may choose to merge several problems into a single problem that requires a holistic problem-solving approach. In terms of decision-making, the translator does not generally verbalise his/her reasons for choosing a translation solution. Nevertheless, s/he has an appropriateness threshold in mind, so that s/he can judge and compare the appropriateness of translation choices and make a decision accordingly. A tentative model of end-revision problem-solving and decision-making has been produced to summarise the findings of this project.
Authors:L. Suszter, Zs. Szakály, F. Ihász, D. Nagy, Z. Alföldi, M. Veresné Bálint, and E. Mák
Intensive exercise significantly lowers the pH of muscle and blood; beta-alanine supplementation can increase carnosine levels, the absence of which leads to an early acidosis and fatigue. The aim of our work is to investigate the effect of a single dose of beta-alanine supplementation on well-trained rowing athletes.
The spiroergometric parameters of the participants (n = 28) were examined a total of four times (T1,T2,T3,T4). After measurement (T3), participants received a beta-alanine supplementation at a dose of 50 mg/kg−1 body weight. We compared the results of the four measurements as well as the blood lactate values obtained from the fingertip before and after the tests.
The different load physiological parameters and the lactate values measured after the tests did not show any significant difference. The mean lactate value prior to test (T4) was 1.8 (mmol*L−1), which is significantly higher than the mean-value of the two previous studies: T1 = 1.6 (mmol*L−1); (P = 0.00), T3 = 1.55 (mmol*L−1); (P = 0.04).
The higher lactate value measured before test (T4) was probably due to the longer time to return to the baseline values after the series load. In conclusion, a single dose of beta-alanine supplementation has no effect on performance. In order to elicit the ergogenic effect of beta-alanine, the use of short, intermittent diet therapy intervention is not recommended.
Since the end of the 1980s, when the term “postcolonial” first landed mainland China, postcolonialism or postcolonial theory
has been vigorously traveling in China for nearly twenty years. From 1995 to 1999, postcolonial criticism prospered and aroused
several consequential issues such as the problem of “aphasia” of Chinese literary theories and its reconstruction, “Postism”
and its conservatism, cultural self-colonization phenomena, “the third world culture,” nationalism and the so-called “Chineseness”
and so on. The articles and books published during the period witness the highest achievement of postcolonial criticism in
China. But the hasty traveling of postcolonialism in China has elicited or exposed many serious problems in the circles of
literary criticism and literary theories. Unhealthy academic ecology in China combined with the misappropriation of the Western
source texts, provoking heated debates over nationalism, “Chineseness,” “aphasia” and intellectual responsibility. Through
analyzing these complicated issues, the author intends to present his own understanding of the traveling and metamorphosis
of postcolonial theories in the Chinese context, and to offer his critical reflections on the problem of how to borrow theories