Authors:F. Cataldo, O. Ursini, P. Ragni, and A. Rosati
Poly(dimethylbutadiene) (PDMB) was synthesized through the inclusion polymerization technique, by γ-irradiation of a clathrate
of 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene in deoxycholic acid (DOCA) at 75, 150, 320 and 430 kGy. The resulting inclusion complexes PDMB@DOCA
were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and by thermal analysis (DTA, TGA and DTG). Pure PDMB was isolated by extracting the complex
PDMB@DOCA with ethanol. The best sample in terms of purity was that prepared at 75 kGy, while the other samples prepared at
higher doses suffered of DOCA grafting on PDMB chains. Pure PDMB isolated from PDMB@DOCA complex was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy
and by thermal analysis in comparison to a reference highly crystalline and ≈=100% trans-1,4-PDMB prepared by inclusion polymerization
in thiourea and in comparison to PDMB prepared by emulsion polymerization. A lower degree of regularity and crystallinity
has been found on the PDMB sample prepared as inclusion compound in DOCA in comparison to the reference PDMB obtained by inclusion
polymerization in thiourea.
Authors:Kalman Buzas, Peter Budai, and Adrienne Clement
One and a half year long field sampling was established in order to evaluate the contamination of storm water runoff. The event means (EMC) total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration of the runoff was a function of the actual traffic intensity and the rainfall depth. It was concluded that this TPH, of which dominant component is the engine-oil (characteristically C28) does not form an ‘oil-in-water’ type emulsion in the condition of normal motorway-operation, but is interlocked to asphalt, rubber and soot particles of maximum some ten microns size. This condition influences the possibility, way and extent of separation alike. The separation equipments and their sizing applied so far are not suitable to achieve efficient surface water protection. Practical prevention method of accidental type environment pollution was also suggested. On the basis of the international literature evaluation, technical solutions capable to decrease the runoff pollution were summarized. Among these, useful calculation method was developed for designers to determine the sufficient storage capacity (water quality volume) of reservoirs applied for water quality protection. Monitoring technique of runoffs, which are characterized time dependent, variable pollutant concentrations by their nature, was proposed. It was stated that the administrative regulation should aim at the EMC instead of current concentration. Beside TPH information was gained on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suspended solids, heavy metals, pH, and nutrient (N, P) pollution of the runoff, which are valuable for the grounding of further research results.
Authors:Ákos Csomós, Ede Orbán, Rózsa Konczné Réti, Erika Vass, and Katalin Darvas
Vizsgálatunkban felmértük az intenzív osztályos nővérek ismeretét a CVC (centrális vénás kanül) okozta fertőzések megelőzésének evidencia alapú ajánlásairól.
A vizsgálatban részt vevő intenzív osztályok nővérei önkéntes részvétellel validált, többszörös választásos kérdőívet töltöttek ki 2006. október és december között. A kérdőív válaszai mellett demográfiai adatokat is gyűjtöttünk: a válaszadó neme, intenzív osztályos (ITO) gyakorlati évek száma, ágyszám, intenzíves szakápolói, illetve főiskolai diploma megléte.
11 intenzív osztályról 178 kérdőívet elemeztünk. A 10 kérdésre adott helyes válaszok átlaga 36,6% volt. A válaszadók közül csak kevesen (18%) tudták, hogy a CVC-k rutinszerű cseréje nem ajánlott, a többség (61,2%) viszont helyesen választotta, hogy a kanülcsere vezetődróton áthúzva nem megfelelő. A nyomásmérő szerelék cseréjét 47,8% végezné minden 4. napon, az antibiotikummal impregnált kanül használatának előnyét pedig 66,3% ismerte. A CVC fedőkötését csak 15,2% végezné el hetente, és csak 34,8% tudta, hogy mind a poliuretán, mind a géz alapú fedőkötés használható. A bőrfertőtlenítésre a 2%-os klór-hexidin ajánlott, ezt 19,8% jelölte meg helyesen; az antibiotikumos kenőcs rezisztenciaokozó hatását 13,6% tudta. Zsíroldatok adásakor 24 óránként cserélné a szereléket a válaszadók 86,4%-a, de csak 4,5% cserélné a tiszta infúziós szereléket 96 óránként. Az intenzív osztályos gyakorlati évek és az ITO-ágyszám nem mutatott korrelációt az eredményekkel.
Vizsgálatunk alapján az intenzív osztályos nővérek ismerete a CVC okozta fertőzések megelőzéséről nem megfelelő. A nemzetközi ajánlások ismertetése a nővérek graduális és posztgraduális képzésében szükséges volna.
A simple, rapid, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of some common over-the-counter drugs (aspirin, paracetamol, and caffeine [APC]) in saliva and pharmaceutical formulations based on the coupling of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USEME) with thin-layer chromatography (TLC)‒image-processing analysis. The process involves the rapid injection of 65 μL of chloroform in diluted saliva samples (2 mL) followed by ultrasonication, which results in the formation of an emulsion. This solution is centrifuged, and 20 μL was spotted on TLC plate which was allowed to develop in mobile phase of ethyl acetate and acetic acid (95:5, v/v). The developed TLC plate was photographed, and the spots of APC were quantified by using the freely available ImageJ software (National Institute of Health [NIH], Bethesda, MD, USA). Factors which can influence the yield of USEME were screened using 27‒4 Placket–Burman design (PBD), and significant factors were optimized using central composite design (CCD). The recoveries and detection limits for all the analytes were found to be in the range of 89.2–94.1% and 0.007–0.012 mg spot−1, respectively. The assay was found to be linear in the range of 0.04–0.2 mg spot−1 with correlation of coefficient of 0.990–0.994. Intra- and inter-day precision for the assay were found to be in the range of 3.12–4.93% and 5.66–8.61%, respectively. The developed method does not require any special instrument and handling skill for the quantitative analysis of APC in saliva and pharmaceutical formulations.
The first works in this field were realized approximately 25 years ago, when BLOCK et al. reported1,2 their studies about carrier-mediated transport (also called pertraction or membrane extraction) of uranium through plasticized membranes with neutral esters derived from phosphoric acid. At this time, the methodical principles of selective pertraction of ionic compounds through so-called bulk liquid membranes containing carriers were known.3 However, these membranes, similarly as plasticized membranes, have not achieved a broader use. This is probably because bulk liquid membranes are from a technical point of view fairly distant from the idea of a typical membrane system, and plasticized membranes (sometimes also called gel membranes) present great resistance. By the end of the 1960's and at the beginning of the 1970's, LI4–7 and CUSSLER8 worked out the principles for two widely used pertraction techniques, called pertraction through emulsion liquid and supported liquid membranes (ELM and SLM). These two techniques not only have greatest significance in laboratory practice, but they also are interesting for technological aims because of the attainable large phase boundaries, e. g. 103–104 m2/m3. Many ways to arrange membrane systems are described in papers.9,10 Recently, the significance of carrier-mediated transport through liquid membranes has grown to have (since 1980) separate section at the International Solvent Extraction Conference.This paper does not deal with mathematical models and the mechanism of pertraction in general, but it gives an overview of results obtained in publications referring to pertraction of two related element groups — actinoids and rare earth elements — using various membrane types.
In this article, synthesis, characterization, and thermal properties of diacrylic/divinylbenzene copolymers based on the new
aromatic tetrafunctional acrylate monomers are presented. The new monomers were generated by treatment of epoxides derived
from various aromatic diols: naphthalene-2,3-diol (NAF), biphenyl-4,4′-diol (BIF), bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)methanone (BEP) or
4,4′-thiodiphenol (BES), and epichlorohydrin with acrylic acid. The addition reaction was carried out by a ratio of 0.5 mol
of suitable epoxy derivative and 1 mol of acrylic acid in the presence of 0.7 wt% of triethylbenzylammonia chloride (TEBAC)
as a catalyst and 0.045 wt% of hydroquinone as a polymerization inhibitor. The chemical structure of the prepared acrylate
monomers was confirmed by 13C NMR and GC MS spectra. The emulsion–suspension polymerization of acrylate monomers with divinylbenzene (DVB) in the presence
of pore-forming diluents (toluene + decan-1-ol) allowed obtaining microspheres containing pendant functional groups (hydroxyl
groups). This process was carried out at constant mol ratio of acrylate monomers: DVB (1:1), and constant volume ratio of
pore-forming diluents to monomers (1:1). The different concentrations of toluene in the mixture with decan-1-ol were used
for qualifying the effect of the diluents on the microsphere characteristics. The influence of synthesis’s parameters on the
properties of copolymer beads, e.g., pore size and surface area by BET method, the surface texture by AFM, swelling behavior
in polar and non-polar solvents as well as thermal stability by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric
analysis (TG) was studied and discussed.
Authors:Y. Serfor-Armah, C. Amoah, G. Odamtten, N. Opata, and E. Akaho
The Volta clam Galatea paradoxa is a highly priced shellfish providing nutrition, jobs and poverty alleviation for the inhabitants of the lower Volta estuary.
Clams are filter feeders straining particulate materials in the surrounding water, thus concentrating microorganisms and other
metal elements in the gut and mantle which present possible health hazards. The elemental composition of the water, clam mantle,
gut, shell, and bottom sediments were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis for the presence of Ca, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn,
V, Fe, Co, Br, Na and K. Proximate analysis of the mantle for the levels of protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash, wood fiber, phosphorus,
free fatty acids and energy were carried out using the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The riverine
water was laden with heavy metals V, Co, Cu, Mn, and Fe, as well as Al. These same metallic elements were detected in higher
concentrations in the bottom sediments. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) which is the measure of the distribution of heavy metals
between water and biota (Clam mantle and gut), ranged from 2 to 145 times, depending on the type of contaminant. The clam
meat contained high protein (15.3 ± 0.2%), no crude fiber, low fat content (1.80 ± 0.11%), fatty acids as oleic (25.2 ± 0.1%),
energy (85.5 ± 0.21 kcal/100 g), carbohydrates (22.10 ± 0.03%), P (485 ± 1 mg/100 g), Ca (793 ± 75 mg/kg), Mg (860.3 ± 90.0 mg/kg).
The high concentration of Ca (21,402.7 ± 797.0 mg/kg), Fe (18,071.2 ± 94.0 mg/kg), K (96 ± 14 mg/kg), Mg (540.8 ± 81.1 mg/kg),
Na (4,570.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg) gives credence to the use of the shell for poultry feed mineral supplements, and in the emulsion
paint manufacturing industry.
lead to change of functional properties of the system. As a result of incorporating the multiple water-in-oil-in-water emulsions of nanosized lipids, food spreadability and stability are improved. A low-fat mayonnaise formulation for example provides a