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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: W.F. Song, Z.Y. Ren, Y.B. Zhang, H.B. Zhao, X.B. Lv, J.L. Li, C.H. Guo, Q.J. Song, C.L. Zhang, W.L. Xin, and Z.M. Xiao

Two lines, L-19-613 and L-19-626, were produced from the common wheat cultivar Longmai 19 (L-19) by six consecutive backcrosses using biochemical marker-assisted selection. L-19 (Glu-D1a, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?; Gli-A1? is a gene coding for unnamed gliadin) and L-19-613 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?) formed a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for HMW-GS, while L-19-613 and L-19-626 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m) constituted another set of NILs for the LMW-GS/gliadins. The three L-19 NILs were grown in the wheat breeding nursery in 2007 and 2008. The field experiments were designed using the three-column contrast arrangement method with four replicates. The three lines were ranked as follows for measurements of gluten strength, which was determined by the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, the stability and breakdown time of the farinogram, the maximum resistance and area of the extensogram, and the P andWvalues of the alveogram: L-19-613 > L-19-626 > L-19. The parameters listed above were significantly different between lines at the 0.05 or 0.01 level. The Glu-D1 and Glu-A3/Gli-A1 loci had additive effects on the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, stability, breakdown time, maximum resistance, area, P and W values. Although genetic variation at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus had a great influence on wheat quality, the genetic difference between Glu-D1d and Glu-D1a at the Glu-D1 locus was much larger than that of Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? and Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus. Glu-D1d had negative effects on the extensibility and the L value compared with Glu-D1a. In contrast, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? had a positive effect on these traits compared with Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m.

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: Shewry, P.R., Tatham, A.S. (eds), Wheat Gluten. Proceedings of the 7 th International Workshop Gluten. Royal Soc. of Chem., Cambridge, UK, pp. 408–412. Blackman, J.A., Gill, A.A. 1979. A comparison of some small

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Z. L. Li, D. D. Wu, H. Y. Li, G. Chen, W. G. Cao, S. Z. Ning, D. C. Liu, and L. Q. Zhang

Gliadin is a main component of gluten proteins that affect functional properties of bread making and contributes to the viscous nature of doughs. In this study, thirteen novel ω-gliadin genes were identified in several Triticum species, which encode the ARH-, ATDand ATN-type proteins. Two novel types of ω-gliadins: ATD- and ATN- have not yet been reported. The lengths of 13 sequences were ranged from 927 to 1269 bp and the deduced mature proteins were varied from 309 to 414 residues. All 13 genes were pseudogenes because of the presence of internal stop codons. The primary structure of these ω-gliadin genes included a signal peptide, a conserved N-terminal domain, a repetitive domain and a conserved C-terminus. In this paper, we first characterize ω-gliadin genes from T. timopheevi ssp. timopheevi and T. timopheevi ssp. araraticum. The ω-gliadin gene variation and the evolutionary relationship of ω-gliadin family genes were also discussed.

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Guidelines for buckwheat enriched bread

Thermal analysis approach

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: D. Fessas, M. Signorelli, Ambrogina Pagani, Manuela Mariotti, Stefania Iametti, and A. Schiraldi

Abstract  

Thermal analysis was used to check the role of the main components of buckwheat flour (polysaccharides and proteins) to assess guidelines for novel recipes for bread from wheat and buckwheat flour blends with improved nutritional properties. The structure-related poor protein quality, namely, the lack of network-forming links, severely limits the use of buckwheat flours in bread-making. Data from TG and DSC analysis indicate that the introduction of a de-hulling step in the buckwheat milling diagram and the addition of some buckwheat polysaccharide fractions, isolated from the buckwheat husk, that contribute to the formation of the crumb structure thanks to their effect on the phase separation driven by the thermodynamic incompatibility with wheat gluten proteins, allows one to tune opposite effects and obtain bread from de-hulled buckweat/wheat flour blends with alveolar distribution much close that of the wheat bread.

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Celiac disease (CD) is a malabsorptive condition of the small intestine that presents clinically with episodic or nocturnal diarrhea, flatulence and weight loss [1]. It has been increasingly recognized that CD does not always present in the traditional fashion but instead may present with elevated hepatic transaminase level [2] or with iron deficiency anemia, growth retardation, osteoporosis, infertility and menstrual disturbances [3]. CD results from an inappropriate T-cell mediated response against ingested gluten. CD frequently is associated with autoimmune diseases including diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroid diseases, Sjögren’s syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune atrophic gastritis and Addison’s disease [4]. The association of CD and hepatitis C is not established presently. We present three cases of CD with hepatitis C as case series.

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Several genotypes of the two “ancients wheats” species, Khorasan wheat and emmer, were evaluated in two different marginal areas of central and southern Italy. They were compared with some old and new released varieties of durum wheat, in order to better understand their agronomic potential and their suitability to be grown in those conditions. Khorasan wheat was the worst yielding species with the highest plant height, kernel and hectolitre weight. Yield and kernel weight from emmer resulted intermediate between the other two species, while plant height did not differ from that of durum wheat. Emmer exhibited high protein and gluten content. Wide genetic response to many traits was found within each species grouping; this suggests that some emmer and Khorasan wheat genotypes have the potential to give high quality product and interesting yield in rainfed marginal areas of central and southern Italy.

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Effects of hydrocolloids (arabic gum, guar gum, and xanthan gum) on the physicochemical and rheological properties of whole-barley fortified cracker flour were determined using solvent retention capacity, alveograph, and Mixolab profiles. Results showed that the water absorption of whole-barley fortified cracker flour was reduced by the additional arabic gum. Besides, arabic gum was more effective in reducing the resistance to inflation and improving the extensibility of whole-barley fortified dough. Mixolab parameters indicated that the weakening of gluten proteins and the rate of starch retrogradation in whole-barley fortified cracker dough were reduced by the presence of arabic gum. Guar gum and xanthan gum promoted the rate of protein breakdown, but slowed down the starch gelatinization and retrogradation rate during the Mixolab heating-cooling cycle. In conclusion, involved arabic gum rather than guar gum or xanthan gum is benefit to improve the baking quality of wholebarley fortified saltine crackers.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S. Wang, D. Chen, G. Guo, T. Zhang, S. Jiang, X. Shen, D. Perovic, S. Prodanovic, and Y. Yan

In this work, 9 novel LMW-GS genes (6 LMW-m and 3 LMW-i type) from 4 diploid and 1 tetraploid Aegilops species were amplified and cloned by allelic-specific PCR. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that 7 and 2 LMW-GS had 9 and 7 cysteines, respectively. Four LMW-m type subunits genes had an extra cysteine at the C-terminal III, which could form intermolecular disulphide bonds to extend the chains, and therefore would facilitate to form larger gluten polymers. This suggested that these genes are expected to be used as candidate genes for wheat quality improvement. The correlation between specific N-terminal sequences and a decapeptide deletion in the C-terminal II in LMW-GS encoded by D genome was found. Particularly, if LMW-GS possessed a METRCIPG-N-terminal beginning sequences and a decapeptide (LGQCSFQQPQ) deletion in the C-terminal II, they could be encoded by D genome.

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Bread wheat is the primary bread crop in the majority of countries in the world. The most important product that is manufactured from its grain and flour is yeast bread. In order to obtain an excellent bread, grain with high physical properties is needed for flour and dough. The Russian spring wheat cultivar Saratovskaya 29 is characterized by its exclusively high physical properties of flour and dough. The purpose of this work was to identify the chromosomes carrying the main loci for these traits in Saratovskaya 29 and to map them using recombinant substitution lines genotyped with molecular markers. A set of inter-varietal substitution lines Saratovskaya 29 (Yanetzkis Probat) was used to identify the “critical” chromosomes. The donor of individual chromosomes is a spring cultivar with average dough strength and tenacity. Substitution of 1D and 4D*7A chromosomes in the genetic background of Saratovskaya 29 resulted in a significant decrease in the physical properties of the dough. Such a deterioration in the case of 1D chromosome might be related to the variability of gluten protein composition. With the help of recombinant substitution double haploid lines obtained from a Saratovskaya 29 (Yanetzkis Probat 4D*7A) substitution line the region on the 4D chromosome was revealed in the strong-flour cultivar Saratovskaya 29, with the microsatellite locus Xgwm0165 to be associated with the unique physical properties of flour and dough. The detected locus is not related to the composition gluten proteins. These locus may be recommended to breeders for the selection of strong-flour cultivars. Additionally, a QTL associated with vitreousness of grain was mapped in the short arm of chromosome 7A.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: G. Balázs, I. Baracskai, M. Nádosi, A. Harasztos, F. Békés, and S. Tömösközi

Bietz, J.A. & Wall, J.S. (1972): Wheat gluten subunits: Molecular weights determined by sodium sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cereal Chem. , 49 , 416

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