An extruded product was made based on oats and dried green pea using central composite rotatable design. Effects of incorporation level of oat flour (OF, 15.86 to 44.14%) and dried green pea flour (DGPF, 7.93 to 22.07%) on the physical and functional characteristics of extruded products based on composite flour were studied using response surface methodology. Second order polynomial equation was used to describe the effect of OF and DGPF on lateral expansion (LE), bulk density (BD), water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI), and hardness (HD). Results indicated that OF had negative effect on LE, while positive effect on BD, WSI, WAI, and HD. On increasing DGPF, LE and WSI increased, but it had negative effect on BD, WAI, and HD. Numerical optimization resulted in 41.91% OF and 7.93% DGPF to produce acceptable extrudates. The results suggest that oats and dried green pea flour can be extruded with rice flour and corn flour into an acceptable snack food.
Authors:Z. Deng, S. Hu, F. Chen, J. Chen, X. Zhang, J. Chen, C. Sun, Y. Zhang, and J. Tian
Two hundred and ninety F9 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the bread wheat cultivar Gaocheng 8901 and the waxy wheat cultivar Nuomai 1 were used in determining the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) and waxy protein subunit combinations and their effects on the dough quality and texture profile analysis (TPA) of cooked Chinese noodles. Seven alleles were detected at Glu-1 loci. There were two alleles found at each of the Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1 loci. Eight allelic combinations were observed for HMW-GS, LMW-GS and waxy proteins, respectively. Both the 1/7+8/5+10 and 1/7+8/5+12 combinations contributed to dough elasticity, and the 1/7+8/5+10 combination also provided better TPA characteristics. Compared to Wx protein, HMW-GS was more important on dough alveogram properties. LMW-GS significantly affected springiness and cohesiveness; HMW-GS mainly affected the hardness; Wx×LMW-GS significantly affected the springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness; HMW-GS×Wx×LMW-GS mainly influenced the springiness and chewiness. But HMW-GS×LMW-GS only affected the spinginess. These indicated the TPA of noodles was significantly affected by the interactions between glutenin and Wx proteins.
Authors:J. P. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. L. Zang, E. N. Yang, C. Liu, X. L. Zheng, K. J. Deng, Y. Q. Zhu, and Y. Zhang
In this study, a new substitution line, 12-5-1, with 42 chromosomes that was derived from BC3F2 descendants of the hybridization between Triticum aestivum cv. CN19 and Aegilops biuncialis was created and reported. The 12-5-1 was immune to both powdery mildew and stripe rust and has stable fertility. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that 12-5-1 was a substitution line 1Mb(1B). The seed storage protein electrophoresis showed that 12-5-1 presented high molecular weight glutenin subunits (2 + 12) of CN19 and a new subunit designated as M which apparently originated from parent Ae. biuncialis, and absent 7 + 8 subunits. Additionally, the flour quality parameters showed that the protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value, wet gluten content, and grain hardness and mixing time of 12-5-1 were signifiantly higher than those of its parent CN19. Moreover, 5 pairs of the chromosome 1Mb-specifi polymerase chain reaction-based landmark unique gene markers, TNAC1021, TNAC1026, TNAC1041, TNAC1-02 and TNAC1-04, were also obtained. The new substitution line 1Mb(1B) 12-5-1 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement, especially for wheat end product quality and resistance to disease.
Authors:Paola Bassani, E. Gariboldi, and G. Vimercati
An Al–4.4Cu–0.5Mg–0.9Si–0.8Mn alloy (IADS 2014
grade) in the solution annealed and peak aged condition was exposed at 170°C
for relatively long times (up to about 1800 h) in order to check the stability
of the alloy. The investigated aging temperature was in the frame of a research
on the long-term mechanical behaviour of such alloy. Microstructure evolution
was monitored via calorimetric analyses, metallographic inspections and hardness
measurements. Further, X-ray analyses were carried out on selected samples.
The attention was focused on differential scanning calorimetry performed at
different scanning rates, with the aim of evaluating the kinetics of the precipitation
phenomena. Notwithstanding the wide industrial diffusion of this alloy, literature
survey showed that there is not a consensus view on the precipitation sequences
and on calorimetric peak identification.
The present results show
the progressive evolution of calorimetric peaks, corresponding to that of
strengthening particles towards more stable phases, proved by the disappearance
of exothermic peaks. Activation energy from Kissinger kinetic analysis in
the case of aged samples provided scattered values that could be reasonably
attributed to an overlapping of transformation peaks. Moreover, in these samples
transformations partially occurred before DSC scans, providing non-constant
transformation fraction at signal peak temperatures and resulting in different
Authors:I. J. Agudelo, H. Bach, R. A. Ricco, and M. L. Wagner
Chañar (Geoffroea decorticans- Fabaceae) is a tree from South America that is normally infected with galls originated by insects. One of its parasites is Allodiplosis crassa (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) which produces globular galls with sticky prolongations. Since this plant has medicinal uses in Argentina, its infestation could alter the quality of the plant drug. The surface of insect-induced galls usually contains defensive features such as trichomes, increased hardness and an increase in the content of polyphenolic compounds. The objective of this research is to assess the structural and histochemical features of the gall and to compare the content of polyphenolic metabolites in the gall, in the healthy leaf and in lignified stems of G. decorticans. The methanolic extract from the galls showed the highest amount of polyphenolic and proanthocyanidins and the lowest amount of hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids compared to the methanolic extract of the leaves. The photographs taken from the external surface of the gall showed that some prolongations have heads. The histochemical analysis showed that the prolongations have a high amount of proanthocyanidins and flavonoids; and that the heads are reactive to Sudan III. These phytochemical and histological characteristics may have a defensive role against harmful fungi and parasites that attack the larvae of the A. crassa. The results of this study show the presence of defensive features in an insect-induced gall of a medicinal plant with potential implications in the pharmacological activity of this species. This is the first report of a histochemical and phytochemical study in G. corticans galls.
Silver-magnesium alloys containing 0.04, 0.35 and 2.3 at % Mg have been investigated at 803 K. Calorimetric measurements permit explanation of the hardness and electrical resistivity caused by the dispersion of oxide particles during the process of internal oxidation. It appears that in low-concentration alloys there is no thermal effect and that the stability of dispersed oxide particles is probably due to a significant entropy Results are qualitatively the same as for Ag-Cu alloys.
A survey of the possibilities of Thermal Analysis (TA) in the plastics and rubber industry is presented. As well as giving examples from research (liquid crystalline main and side chain polymers) and construction (laminates of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy resin prepregs), the field of quality assurance and material characterization is specially discussed. The correlation between TA-characteristics such as the degree of crystallinity and mechanical properties (e.g. hardness or green strength) is demonstrated. The application of thermogravimetry for a precise compositional analysis of compounded rubbers is shown. In practice, Thermal Analysis is most important for failure analysis and the characterization of processing parameters during the production of moulded parts as TA-methods are usually much faster than traditional standard methods. Moreover, the increasing importance of combining TA-methods with other techniques of instrumental analysis is demonstrated. An example of this combination is the TG-DSC-MS coupling which is invaluable in the area of environmental protection especially in the production, application and recycling of moulded parts from polymeric materials.
Authors:G. Krishnappa, A.K. Ahlawat, R.B. Shukla, S.K. Singh, S.K. Singh, A.M. Singh, and G.P. Singh
A set of 286 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) along with the parents and a popular wheat variety in India were grown for two consecutive years at three locations belonging to the two major wheat growing zones of India and evaluated for four grain quality traits. Rare recombinants with high trait value appeared for protein content (PC), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), sedimentation value (SV), and kernel hardness (KH). The magnitude of environmental effects was more pronounced than genotypic effects and genotype-environment interaction (GEI). The cumulative contribution of environment and GEI components to the total variance was highest in the expression of PC followed by TKW, SV, and KH. The top five percent (14 RILs) of genotypes with high trait value were subjected to Eberhart and Russell (1966) (ER), genotype and genotype-environment (GGE) and additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) stability models. Five RILs were identified as stable in all the three stability models. RIL61 with 38.8%, RIL101 with 8.9%, RIL226 with 26.1% superiority over check variety were the most stable genotypes in all the three stability models for PC, TKW and KH, respectively. RIL113 was found to be stable genotype in ER and GGE models, whereas, RIL231 was the most stable genotype in AMMI and GGE models in the expression of SV. These common stable genotypes with high trait value identified through ER, AMMI and GGE models could be potential donors in active breeding programs to develop high yielding wheat varieties with improved PC, TKW, SV and KH.
The Psalter (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Cod. Guelf. 39 Aug. 4º) of Beatrice of Aragon, the wife of King Matthias Corvinus, often features in research literature on account of its title-page and ornate binding. The title-page (fol. 13r) was long attributed to Francesco del Cherico, but for some time now it has been ascribed to Francesco Rosselli and his collaborator, the Maestro dell'Iliade Medicea, while the binding is attributed – after Anthony Hobson – to Felice Feliciano. There are written documents to prove that both Francesco Rosselli and Felice Feliciano visited Hungary, both in the late 1470s, in1480 the latest. That Rosselli painted the Psalter title-page in Buda cannot be proven, although the arguments proposed by Edina Zsupán – the Hungarian saints in the calendar, the crudeness of the parchment – may suggest it. However, not only the title-page but six other pages of the Psalm-book are illumined (foll. 43r, 59v, 76v, 94r, 115v, 135v, 155v). These pages so far ignored by research literature are not Francesco Rosselli's works, being in completely different style. Their illuminator was presumably one of the North Italian masters who illumined for Hungarian clients several manuscripts in Buda around1480 and later, among whom only one is known by name(Franciscus Kastello Ithallico de Mediolano). He used cold, bright colours, the faces of the figures are markedly modelled, the drapery has a metallic hardness. One of the ruling motifs of the marginal decoration is the cornucopia. This hand cannot be identified at present in any manuscript whose provenience was Buda; its closest relative is a single Italian illumination in the Corvinus Gradual(National Széchényi Library, Cod. Lat. 424, fol. 7r). The master of the ornate binding of the Psalter – as Marianne Rozsondai has established – was the binder of the 14th century Bible kept in Erlangen (Universitätsbibliothek, Ms. 6) which also features of portrait of King Matthias. Important roles are played on both bindings by the leather filigree arabesques and the embossed all'antica motifs. The hand of the master making the gilded Corvina bindings can also be discerned on the Bible binding. So it seems that these two luxurious manuscripts completed around 1480 had an important – maybe even model-giving – role in the history of the evolving royal library, the Bibliotheca Corvina.