manuscript in German, 1-3. Words of introduction at the Kodály centenary concert of the Conservatory of Lucerne. Delivered on 7 January 1983, read by the author. Manuscript. Budapesst, Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Veress
Since the territories of the ancient patriarchate of Aquileia did not share the same historical development, the eastern, Austrian part of the patriarchate, comprising the land of Carniola, but also the southern parts of Styria and Carinthia, must be regarded as a special area within the Aquileian ecclesiastical province. There is a repertoire of 23 poetic (or to some extent poetic) offices preserved in the manuscripts from this region. Its main characteristic appears to be the mixture of south German and Aquileian creations, the latter layer consisting of four offices for four groups of local Aquileian saints. Judging by the sources preserved, these offices circulated only within the patriarchate; however, one of them (the poetic office of the Cancius' family) seems to be unique to the antiphonary from Kranj/Krainburg. The Aquileian offices appear to have come into being in different periods from the late 13th to the late 15th centuries; they therefore disclose different musical characteristics that do not allow us to conceive of them as representing a distinct and stylistically unified group of musical creations. The study has three objectives: presents the repertoire of the poetic offices, analyses the repertoire according to the origin of its items, compares some basic traits of those offices.
On the occasion of Béla Bartók's 125th birthday a meeting of Bartók scholars from all over the world in the Budapest Bartók Archives is an exclusive event. Bartók's name in a way serves as a world passport, it demonstrates the great achievements of a small nation, a phenomenon that politicians abuse. Bartók was an exceptional man whose spirit radiates for those who come in contact with his art and life, with legacy, the manuscripts of his compositions and his ethnomusicological work. The international conferences dedicated to Béla Bartók's oeuvre and world do influence Bartók studies considerably. The Hungarian Academy of Sciences or directly the Bartók Archives have organized several conferences in the past forty-five years. For the 125th anniversary a call for papers on the internet was enough to set dozens of musicologists, including many ambitious young scholars form twenty countries in motion. This is a surprising experience even if if we acknowledge that the perspectives and the rank of Bartók studies considerably improved in the past decade.
The year 1955 has a special importance for the compositional thinking in Hungary, because it was the year in which Ernő Lendvai's studies of Béla Bartók appeared (Bartók's Style and An Introduction to the Analysis of Bartók's Works). These writings were intended to prove the modernity of his music, a modernity that was comparable to Western-European dodecaphony and serialism. Hungarian composers, attempting to liberate themselves from the dictatorical aesthetic theory of the fifties, saw in Lendvai's publications a kind of instruction book, a Kompositionslehre which could help them to renew Hungarian composition. Model scales, Bartók's harmonic formulas and the Golden Section were understood in this context as devices of modernity in new music. Young Hungarian composers had begun to follow Bartók's path as early as in the mid-twenties. Until 1955, however, this had meant only a stylistic imitation of his works: Bartók's musical language represented for them the modern manner of self-expression. The consequence of Lendvai's publications was that composers could move away from style imitation and build on some Bartókian constructional principles in their compositions. I take Endre Szervánszky's Second String Quartet (1956-57) and its manuscript sources as a case study demonstrating how the composer worked with scale models, the golden section and other elements of Lendvai's theory. As I argue, Szervánszky's work is an emblematic but also a complex case, for he strove to combine the Bartókian method with a kind of serialism.
Imre Steindl (1839–1902) is thought to be one of the most prominent architects of the Hungarian Historicism, whose active contribution to the Hungarian Neo-gothic architecture and restoration practices can hardly be overestimated. Albeit, his activity as an architect of the renowned late chief work of the international Gothic Revival, the Hungarian Parliament, as a leader of a prosperous atelier and as a driving force in the public life of the Hungarian architects has been studied intensively, to his work as professor at the Joseph Technical University of Budapest has been so far less attention given. Steindl began to teach as an ordinary professor of medieval architecture in 1870 and shaped the curriculum and educational methods following the traditions of his former alma mater, the Academy Fine Arts of Vienna. In this study, beyond the outline of the long 19th-century Hungarian architectural education and analysis the educational principals typical of Steindl’s methods, the manuscript of the professor’s lecture notes is published and analyzed, with special regard to his historiographical orientation and scholarly reference points. The philological reading of the text points out, that Steindl compiled his lectures in question from the ‘great syntheses’ of the Berlin School of Art History, above all that of Wilhelm Lübke and Karl Schnaase. The detection of this kind of historiographical influence may contribute to the scholarship’s image of Steindl’s, furthermore the late 19th-century Hungarian architectural intelligentsia’s erudition.
This study tries to give an overview of the varied connections between word and image in the calendars and other popular works (penny books, manuscript song collections) of the late Renaissance and Baroque. The author investigates the associations and influences from different fields of culture, considers ancient topoi and archetypes which underwent a great many transformations over space and time. In the first part of this paper are examined some non-traditional figures in the calendar for 1578 (Kolozsvár-Cluj, Heltai’s office) like mermaids/sirens in the role of Aquarius and Virgo, and the appearence of these figures on the painted furniture and ceiling panels of 18th -century Calvinist churches in Hungary.
The second part of this article deals with some typical title pages of calendars, edited in different printing houses of Upper Hungary (by Lorentz Brewer in Lőcse/Levoča, the serie Calendarium Tyrnaviense, Nagyszombat/Trnava) from the second half of the 17th century, and with the calendars of David Frölich, published in Breslau (Wrocław, PL) between 1623 and 1646.
György (Đuro) Arnold (1781-1848) the composer, teacher, conductor, lexicographer and founder of the first music school in Subotica, was the regens chori of the Subotica's Sv. Terezija church (1800-48). He was a prolific composer, writing in a variety of genres, from compositions for the church of Sv. Terezija, choral and chamber works to operas, melodramas, songs, overtures, and verbunkos (the complete list of his works is included in the appendix). Arnold's style was influenced by Viennese Classical church music and the emerging Hungarian national style. In his early sacred pieces, he used quotations from popular operas, but in later compositions he was closer to Haydn, and the Te Deum Solenne dedicated to the Zagreb Bishop Aleksandar Alagović shows possible influence of early Beethoven. In many aspects, Arnold was a composer on the periphery. He liked large ensembles which could impress audiences with the brightness of the orchestral sound altough, as far as we know, he never attempted to build a large symphonic form which would match the richness of such a sound. He ususally set the text in short sentences, quickly exhausting its possibilities, undermining the expectations raised by the large-scale gradations which open his compositions. In 1819, Arnold published Pismenik, a collections of texts (without tunes) of Croatian Roman Catholic hymns collected in Bačka (western Vojvodina); the preface to Pismenik and its complete table of contents are reprinted in an appendix. In 1839-40, he completed the hymnal Valóságos egyházi kántori fontos énekeskönyv with 186 church compositions intended for Hungarian and Transylvanian chuch musicians, which remained unpublished. In 1826, Arnold began working on the Historisch-musikalisch bibliographisches Tonkünstler Lexikon, which expanded to four manuscript volumes in length, but remained unpublished and seems to be lost today.
Khitan Large and Small Scripts modelled on Chinese characters were created to record the Khitan language in the 10th century. In June 1922 the thousand-year-old dust-laden Khitan scripts were rediscovered and brought to light again arousing great interest and hot discussions regarding the research of historical nationalities in the terrirory what is now northern China. Up to now approximately seventy pieces of monuments with Khitan inscriptions have been found, mostly epitaphs and eulogies, with a total of 80,000 words. The Epitaph of Changgun Yelü Zhun of Great Liao 大遼國常袞耶律凖墓誌銘, carved in Khitan Large Script in Xianyong the fourth year (1068), was found at the town of Beizifu, Aohan Banner Inner Mongolia. With its exquisite carving and intact content, this epitaph can be regarded as one of the extant top quality monuments in Khitan Large Script. It is the first time that the rubbing, the manuscript and the interpretation of this epitaph are presented to the public. This paper compares the graphemes of the Large Script and the Small Script, in order to deduce the unknown from the known. Understanding the nature of the Khitan Large Script and investigating different Khitan materials, we can state that numerous Large Script graphemes matched with the corresponding Small Script graphemes. Based on the research findings of the Khitan Small Script graphemes and the historical records of the Yaonian clan, this paper attempts to reveal the wording habit, the combination rule of the graphemes of the epitaph text and the context of the words, in order to decipher some Large Script graphemes untouched before and to reconstruct or correct the pronunciation of some graphemes of the Large Script.
A XV. század közepe táján a kereszténység előtti kultúrák iránti érdeklődés megnövekedésével egyidejűleg emelkedni kezdett a görögül tanulni vágyók száma is Európa latin nyelvű felében. Ezzel párhuzamosan megnőtt az igény a különféle nyelvtanulási segédletek, így a görög–latin szótárak iránt is. Kétnyelvű szótárra többféleképpen lehetett ekkoriban szert tenni, az egyik lehetőséget egy ókori bilinguis szótár, az ún. Pseudo-Kyrillos jelentette. A Pseudo-Kyrillos a magyar kutatás érdeklődését is felkeltette az utóbbi évtizedekben, főként azért, mert egyik példányát Janus Pannonius is beszerezte magának. Az alábbi tanulmány nem ezzel a példánnyal kíván foglalkozni, hanem egy másikkal, amelyet egy bizonyos Benedictus másolt. A szerző arra tesz kísérletet, hogy azonosítsa az illető személyét, nyomon kövesse a példány keletkezésének történetét, valamint feltérképezze a Pseudo-Kyrillos szöveghagyományozódásának egyik ágát.