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during a child's first three years of life Marriage and family review 29 115 136 . A. Bandura

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Oxford University Press Oxford . S. Edwards 1995 Marriage and childbearing patterns differ greatly across developing world

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. Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture: Anthropological Perspectives 1978 Wagner , William G. 1994: Marriage, Property and Law in Late Imperial Russia . New York: Clarendon Press

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. (1991): Correlates of satisfaction in British marriages. Ethology and Sociobiology , 13 , 125-145. Correlates of satisfaction in British marriages Ethology and Sociobiology

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(Veröffentlichungen des Deutschen Historischen Instituis London 9). Holmgren, J. (1986): Observations on Marriage and Inherilance Praclices in Early Mongol Hislory and Yüan Sociely, with Particular Reference lo the Levirale

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1 Ebrey, P. B. (1993): The Inner Quarters: Marriage and the Lives of Chinese Women in the Sung Period . Berkeley: University of California Press

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Abstract

General Jean-François L'Huillier had a baroque country house built in Edelény in Borsod county between 1716 and 1728, on an estate he had received from the emperor for his military services. The wall paintings of the rooms as seen today are associated with the third generation of owners: contracts with several painters survive from the time of Countess Ludmilla Forgách, the granddaughter of the founder, and her husband István Eszterházy of Zólyom. The characteristic style and rococo motifs of the figural murals brought other works into connection with the Edelény paintings, those at Taktabáj and Lelesz (Leles) also preserving the name of Ferenc Lieb, a Viennese painter who can be demonstrated between 1758 and 1788 at Igló (Spišská Nová Ves); he was most likely the painter of the six rooms ordered by the countess in 1769. The decorative painting by János Voronieski, who was contracted four years earlier, perished. Later, in 1780, Lieb's son-inlaw Jakab Ignác Fabricius, a painter of Miskolc, adorned the walls of a seventh room in the western wing.

In the meantime the count employed portraitist Sámuel Horváth in Pest in 1768 to create a historical series of 225 pieces: the models for the small full-length representations of Hungarian chieftains, kings and ancestors of the Esterházy family were the Nádasdy Mausoleum (1664) and the Esterházy Tropheum, family histories of engravings (1700) — a copy of the latter also included in the Edelény library. The prototype of the gallery of ancestors at Fraknó (Burg Forchtenstein) might have been known to the count, but in his Zólyom (Zvolen) castle there was also a similar series made after the Mausoleum: panels of a wooden ceiling from the first quarter of the 18th century. The Edelény paintings were arranged like a frieze in the upstairs great hall, until then only embellished by stucco work from the time of the construction and by stone carvings with the Forgách arms on the fireplace.

The double enfilade upstairs in the eastern wing of the mansion — the sources claim — constituted the private sphere of the couple. In the first room the personifications of the four seasons in costumes appear in genre scenes of agricultural work, accompanied by putti symbolizing the four elements. The walls of the new dining room are adorned with idyllic scenes from the life of the mansion including the itinerary motif of the maiden on the swing, with Venus on a swan-drawn cart opposite her. The four battle-scenes imitating framed paintings allude to the heroic deeds of the ancestors. In the next room the walls of which are painted with wallpaper pattern the ceiling is dominated by Hermes and Amor, while the count's bedroom ceiling is devoted to Jupiter. Here in the door and window reveals a selection of emblems refers to the virtues of the husband, while in the vault sections contemporaneous portrait-like figures — two couples — are shown in fashionable costumes, in the company of Gypsy musicians. In the room of the countess next to the oratory the allegory of good government eulogizes Ludmilla Forgách; the cosmological symbols and personifications of the four parts of the world are depicted on the ceiling of the adjacent cabinet.

While the count wished to emphasize the dynastic roots and imperial position of his family and conserved the earlier tradition of the gallery of ancestors, the wife adopted the recent European fashion of profane rococo wall paintings. However, István Eszterházy applied in vain to the empress for the chief administrator's post in the county on several occasions, nor did he receive the St Stephen order. The couple had no children of their own. In 1775 Ludmilla Forgách became a Dame of the Star Cross order; she was extolled for the support of orphans, but at the same time a mocking poem was also written of her supercilious way of life. It is a fact that she left Edelény burdened with debt to her son from her first marriage. The pictorial program completed with the — now lost — gallery of ancestors roots in the baroque tradition of representing the “connubium” of two families which may be fed by rivalry and mutual support alike. The surviving rococo wall paintings represent a singular, genrelike attempt at this iconography.

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Abstract

From a late 16th century Four Elements series two, the depictions of Air and Water, can be found in the Hungarian National Gallery. Another element is identified by the author in a painting of a female head at the Múzeum Červený Kameň. The picture is badly damaged, the original inscription is missing. On the basis of the ochre and red colours it can be taken for the allegory of Fire: the figure is holding a pair of tongs between two fingers. The picture in the Múzeum Červený Kameň is registered as a work by someone in the circle of Matthias Gundelach. When it turned out that the painting belonged to the Budapest series (whose style is alien to Gundelach), this attribution had to be discarded. The Budapest allegories are now put up in the exhibition as works created by someone close to Bartholomäus Spranger, but in the present paper they are defined as works by Spranger himself. It is first of all the depiction of Air that can be easily tied to the authentic works of the Prague painter (Venus, Ceres and Bacchus, c. 1590, Graz, Joanneum; Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalene, 1591, Bucharest, Muzeul de Arte), while the rendering of Water is closest to the allegorical female figures in the lower part of his picture The Triumph of Knowledge (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum). The pictures were probably painted in the early 1590s, which dating may be confirmed by the lack of any trace of J. Heintz's and H. von Aachen's influence. Art historians ascribe the change in Spranger's style to the influence of these two painters which began to be felt in the first half of the 1590s. This altered style is characterized by a metallic modelling, powerful contours and strong light-and-shade effects. The painting in the Múzeum Červený Kameň came to the museum from Alsó-Korompa (Dolná Krupa), from the country house formerly belonging to the Brunszvik, later to the Chotek families. This provenance is also a clue to the Budapest paintings. Chief justice Count József Brunszvik's collection was in Buda in the early 19th century, and about half of its items were transferred to Alsó-Korompa after his death. In the detailed inventory taken on that occasion no trace of the series or its parts can be found, which means that they did not originate from the Brunszvik collection. As the country house went over to the Chotek family through the marriage of József Brunszvik's daughter, it is not impossible that the Four Elements series had once been possessed by that family.

In 1983 the Hungarian National Gallery purchased a canvas tapestry painted in tempera as Ferenc Rákóczi II's itinerant tapestry. Originally it belonged to a series of seven pieces and was still in the Zboró (Zborov) castle of the Rákóczi family as late as around 1870. Another piece found its way into the Hungarian National Museum. What shed light on the iconography of the series was the identification of the engraving serving as precursor: the depictions visualize quotations from Horace's poems after the engravings of Otto van Veen's Emblemata Horatiana, a book of emblems (Antwerp, 1607). The tapestry in the Hungarian National Gallery shows Diogenes with the hedonist philosopher Aristippus in dispute. In the other tapestry there are two pictures: the allegory of “material sobriety” and a parable of wise understanding and tractability illustrated with the story of the mythological twins Amphion and Zethus. The prototypes suggest that the series was made sometime in the 17th century, using the 1607 or 1612 Antwerp edition. As no copy of the publication can be traced in 17th-century Hungary, the cycle was probably not painted in Hungary, or in Central Europe. Since the tapestry cannot be found in any inventory of Prince Rákóczi's property, it was probably later imported, presumably in the 18th century – when the castle of Zboró was at the hands of the later owners Count Aspremont and Erdődy families.

The composition of the St Martin episode in the St Martin Church of Szombathely – formerly on display at the Hungarian National Gallery – originates in an engraving by Adriaen Collaert made after Jan van der Straet's (Giovanni Stradano) invention. Figure of Saint Martin in the painting dated to around 1653 is perhaps a crypto portrait of a person with initials “M(artinus) A” written on the dog's collar. Around him Hungarian noblemen are depicted. The coat of arms in the picture – maybe of the client who ordered it – is so far unidentified.

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Az „őszülő társadalmakban”, így Magyarországon is a lakosság öregedésével párhuzamosan egyre nagyobb kihívást jelent az idős korú emberek jólétének biztosítása, szomatikus, pszichés és szociális szempontból egyaránt. Az időskor az elmúlás és a bejárt életúttal való szembenézés, „az elszámolás” időszaka. Ezekre az évekre esik az erikson-i értelemben vett utolsó pszichoszociális stádium, melynek központi feladata személyes életutunk saját vállainkon nyugvó „értelmének” fellelése. Ennek a folyamatnak Erik H. Erikson szerint kétféle kimenetele lehet: egyrészt a személyes felelősség és a halandóság elfogadását tükröző, az élettel való megelégedettségben gyökerező én-integritás, másrészt pedig ennek a felhalmozott én-teljességnek a hiányáról illetve elvesztéséről tanúskodó kétségbeesés. Az élet végességének elfogadásában a teljes életutunkat átívelően biztonságot nyújtó kötődéseink tükröződnek. Öregedésünk – és a modern, nyugati társadalmakban ezzel szinte kötelezően együtt járó szerepvesztés/váltás elfogadása – nagyrészt az életnek jelentést és tartalmat adó értelemteljes cél fellelésének, a mindennapi szociális környezetben betöltött szerep szubjektív megélésének, továbbá az egyéni életúttal, a személyes múlt meghatározó eseményeivel kapcsolatos érzéseink függvénye. Vizsgálatunkban gerontológiai korú (65 éven felüli) személyek három csoportját vizsgáltuk: belgyógyászati osztályon kezelt idős embereket, szociális intézményben, Idősek Házában élő időseket, illetve otthonukban – egyedül vagy családtagjaival – élő, szociálisan aktív, Idősek Klubját rendszeresen látogató embereket (összesen 75 idős embert). Vizsgálati módszerek: az Élet-értelmébe vetett hit skála, ennek kiegészítéseként a mindennapi szociális környezetben betöltött szerep szubjektív megélését vizsgáló kérdés, és egy általunk összeállított kérdéssor (vizsgálat helyszíne, demográfiai adatok: nem, kor, családi kapcsolatok, személyes élethelyzet szubjektív megítélése, társas aktivitás, szociális veszteségek és az egészségi állapot szubjektív megítélése). A kérdéssorban központi helyet kapott egy, az egyéni életúttal és a múlttal kapcsolatos megbánás meglétét illetve hiányát felmérő félig strukturált interjú. Eredményeink, várakozásainknak megfelelően azt mutatják, hogy a meglévő és „működő” családi, szociális kapcsolat(ok) a legjelentősebb protektív faktor az időskori kétségbeesés megjelenésével szemben. Bár az eltérések nem szignifikánsak, elmondható, hogy a pillanatnyi élethelyzet szubjektív megítélése jelentős, azonos tendenciájú hatást gyakorolt az élet értelmességének megítélésére. A közösségi tevékenységekben, társas összejöveteleken való részvétel és az egészségi állapot pozitív megítélése szignifikánsan emelte az „Élet-értelmébe vetett hit” változó értékeit. Azon személyeknél, akik életútjukra visszatekintve megbánással kapcsolatos érzésekről számoltak be drasztikusan lecsökkent élet értelmébe vetett hit. A vizsgálat helyszíne és a mindennapi szociális környezetben betöltött szerep ugyancsak szignifikáns hatást gyakorolt vizsgált változónkra. Ahogy emelkedik az egyéni fontosság, a „szükség van rám” érzés szintje, úgy növekszik az élet-értelmébe vetett hit is, következésképpen a ritkább szövésű szociális hálóval rendelkező, kedvezőtlenebb életkörülmények között, Idősek Házában élő emberek a legveszélyeztetettebbek.

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evolution of values Journal of Marriage and Family 63 491 503 . C Cameron S

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