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translation of a minority language: The case of Dutch. In: Pym, A. & Shlesinger, M. & Jettmarová, Z. (eds) Sociocultural Aspects of Translating and Interpreting . Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 27–40. Linn S

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The study sums up the ethnographical achievements of Hiador Sztripszky (1876-1945), a now little-known Hungarian-Ruthenian ethnographer, bibliographer, linguist, literary historian and translator. The researcher, who had a thorough knowledge of the cultural history and ethnography/folkloristics of the Hungarians and the peoples living together with them, in particular of the Ruthenians and Romanians, did a great deal to study and make known the ethnocultural processes and influences. He also played a big role in collecting the material cultural heritage of the peoples of Transylvania for museums. After the Versailles Peace Treaty he was sent into early retirement as having been involved in the policy on the minorities, and in the last 25 years of his life he achieved substantial results mainly as a philologist in the study of the history and connections of the different ethnic groups and denominations. In addition to Sztripszky's work in ethnography, the study also discusses areas related to the latter problem.

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Abstract  

This essay is based on Ken Saro-Wiwa’s novel, titled Sozaboy. Apart from using this novel to interpret and locate the history and politics of Nigeria within a particular period, the essay tried to look at the 1967–1970 Nigeria’s civil war as fictionalized by Ken Saro-Wiwa, the nature of the language and implications on the English language in Nigeria. It also attempted an understanding of the moral and political consequences of war on humanity in general and the special effect of the Nigerian civil war on the minority areas within the Biafran enclave in particular as epitomized by Dukana, the setting of Sozaboy. The essay concluded that the novel itself was a bold attempt at experimentation with language, considering the fact that it was written in what the author himself described as “rotten” English.

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This paper deals with the Altab Ali Park and its significance in regards to the Muslim community in the London borough of Tower Hamlets. Using Pierre Nora’s concept of lieux de mémoire, I would like to demonstrate how the Bangladeshi Muslim minority and the rest of the community of Tower Hamlets construct their collective memory through the transformation of the park. The article argues that the Altab Ali Park is in Pierre Nora’s term a lieu de mémoire with multiple layers, which has been developed to enhance community cohesion in the Borough. The park itself contains further lieux de mémoire with clear messages against extremist secular and religious ideologies. This makes the park a symbol of multicultural coexistence in the district, which could help increase community cohesion through shaping the identity of the inhabitants of Tower Hamlets.

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The paper proposes a short reflection on the nature of the post war political transformation in Sierra Leone, taking the visual signs of the streets as a starting point. The author observed the post-conflict democratisation process over five years, between 2008 and 2012, and describes how reading the political slogans, bill boards and popular graffitis allowed her following the subtle socio-economic changes characterising the country. The underlying argument is that the largely externally led liberal peace building using foreign and local NGOs as engines of a deep social transformation was based on abstract promises that ultimately failed to realise. Without effectively changing people’s lives, these abstract promises normalised a value system that prepared a capitalist take offbut ten years after the end of the civil war capitalist development still worked only for a tiny minority, making many people doubt about the benevolent nature of globalisation.

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This paper concentrates on communication with minority groups through a third party or intermediary in the public services. The variety of settings in which these encounters take place (hospitals, schools, government offices, police stations, customs checkpoints, etc.) raises questions on the role played by this intermediary, the importance of culture, the recognition of his/her job as a profession, the acceptance of the varied forms of professionalism, and the consideration of the different attitudes of the society and its institutions. This study concentrates on the different names and roles assigned to this link, with special emphasis on one of them: the interpreter and translator, and the debate surrounding the new roles he/she should (or should not) perform.

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In the 1980s, a single female performer, Márta Sebestyén, defined Hungarian folk singing. Sebestyén’s voice, with the heavy ornamentation and chest timbre of the Hungarian-Transylvanian sound, became popular worldwide. Even as Sebestyén’s voice was popularized via electronic dance mixes and film soundtracks, in live performances and interviews she emphasized the ethnic minority Hungarians in Transylvania who served as her musical sources. The 21st century has seen the ascent of several young female singers in Hungary. They have taken the advocate role in a different direction, dramatizing the experiences of other underprivileged groups and of women. They face additional challenges: currently in Hungary, every sphere of artistic life, including folk music, must demonstrate economic independence. The young folk divas front their own groups and develop high concepts for their albums and performances. It remains to be seen whether their forthrightness will gain the same success as the modest image of the classic singer of the Hungarian folk revival style.

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Abstract  

Im Beitrag wird gefragt, inwiefern in den USA Versuche, dieser Literatur aus multikultureller Sicht gerecht zu werden, tatschlich erfolgreich gewesen sind. Fhrt die in den USA gefhrte Diskussion ber Minority Literature nicht zu einer kultur-ethnischen Auslegung einzelner Werke? Literaturwissenschaftler nicht deutscher Herkunft, die in Deutschland leben und ber Migrationsliteratur arbeiten, betonen, dass die 'interkulturellen Dominanten' dieser Literatur vornehmlich von Literaturwissenschaftlern der 'zweiten Generation' erfasst werden knnen, denn nur sie verfgen ber ein erlebtes Wissen in Sprache und Kultur mindestens zweier Lnder. Im Beitrag werden Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede der drei Grundpositionen - die nordamerikanische, die deutsche und die der Wissenschaftler nicht deutscher Herkunft - herausgearbeitet und insbesondere im Hinblick auf die Thematisierung des multikulturellen Diskurses hinterfragt.

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A land grant issued by Raṇasiṃhadeva of the Candrāvatī branch of the Paramāra dynasty in North-West India has recently come to my attention. It contains a genealogy of the Candrāvatī line from Utpalarāja to Raṇasiṃha. This ruler was hitherto known only from one published inscription (the Roheญā plates), and has been thought to be a usurper who briefly snatched the throne from the legitimate ruler Dhārāvarṣa. The grant, dated 1 November 1161 CE, makes no mention of Dhārāvarṣa, calling for a reinterpretation of some ambiguous lines of the Roheญā inscription. It is a possibility that Raṇasiṃha was not a usurper, but ruled as a regent during Dhārāvarṣa’s minority and then willingly handed the throne over to him.

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Absztrakt

A tanulmány bevezetője röviden ismerteti azokat a körülményeket, amelyek eredményeképpen az ír nyelv saját országában kisebbségi nyelvvé vált. A cikk fő része részletesen tárgyalja az ír terminológia-fejlesztés történetét, és megvizsgálja annak kontextusát, hátterét, speciális körülményeit, a modern értelemben vett terminológia-fejlesztés kialakulását és jelenlegi állapotát, valamint a terminusalkotás alapelveit és módszereit, illetve az írországi terminusalkotáshoz és terminológia-fejlesztéshez kapcsolódó problémákat.

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