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The role of the popular play in preserving natinal identity

The example of Velika Pisanica, Croatia, with additional reference to Burgenland and Slovenia

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Imre Gráfik

Ethnographic inquiry into the folk culture of the Carpathian Basin, with particular reference to developmental trends, has revealed much new information regarding the lives of Hungarians abroad, especially regarding changing living conditions within Hungarian populations now living outside historically redrawn Hungarian state borders. It would be no exaggeration to claim that these Hungarians have, to the present day, lived under extraordinarily diverse circumstances, and that the preservation of folk culture in the minority national environment has been a decisive factor in the maintenance of their national identity. For this culture to survive and grow, however, it is essential that members of the national group learn and use their native Hungarian tongue.The present study concerns itself with the historic genre of the popular play, a cultural phenomenon that has played a special role in this regard and that in some places, both in the recent past, and today, still bears considerable significance in the preservation of minority national identity. Accordingly, this study will not extend to actual folk dramatics, though it will make reference to certain intersections and possible relationships where it seems natural to do so.

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translation of a minority language: The case of Dutch. In: Pym, A. & Shlesinger, M. & Jettmarová, Z. (eds) Sociocultural Aspects of Translating and Interpreting . Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 27–40. Linn S

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Absztrakt

A tanulmány bevezetője röviden ismerteti azokat a körülményeket, amelyek eredményeképpen az ír nyelv saját országában kisebbségi nyelvvé vált. A cikk fő része részletesen tárgyalja az ír terminológia-fejlesztés történetét, és megvizsgálja annak kontextusát, hátterét, speciális körülményeit, a modern értelemben vett terminológia-fejlesztés kialakulását és jelenlegi állapotát, valamint a terminusalkotás alapelveit és módszereit, illetve az írországi terminusalkotáshoz és terminológia-fejlesztéshez kapcsolódó problémákat.

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In the 1980s, a single female performer, Márta Sebestyén, defined Hungarian folk singing. Sebestyén’s voice, with the heavy ornamentation and chest timbre of the Hungarian-Transylvanian sound, became popular worldwide. Even as Sebestyén’s voice was popularized via electronic dance mixes and film soundtracks, in live performances and interviews she emphasized the ethnic minority Hungarians in Transylvania who served as her musical sources. The 21st century has seen the ascent of several young female singers in Hungary. They have taken the advocate role in a different direction, dramatizing the experiences of other underprivileged groups and of women. They face additional challenges: currently in Hungary, every sphere of artistic life, including folk music, must demonstrate economic independence. The young folk divas front their own groups and develop high concepts for their albums and performances. It remains to be seen whether their forthrightness will gain the same success as the modest image of the classic singer of the Hungarian folk revival style.

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If one needs to obtain some information on the Roman conquest of Pannonia, his job seems to be easy: he has just to read both the ancient sources and many a modern work about this issue. But there are three problems: 1) the Greek and Latin sources are scanty, very poor in details and sometimes misleading; 2) the modern scholars often echo and deepen the errors of the ancient sources while adding other mistakes of their own; 3) mainstream opinions as well as minority views about Pannonian ethnography are premised on false or faulty assumptions and distort further our understanding of the historical events. This paper wants to correct both ancient errors and modern ones. Its author tried to reconstruct a coherent and clear picture of bellum Pannonicum in 12-9 BC; he also aimed at throwing new light on the ethnic composition of the Pannonian tribes.

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Abstract  

This essay is based on Ken Saro-Wiwa’s novel, titled Sozaboy. Apart from using this novel to interpret and locate the history and politics of Nigeria within a particular period, the essay tried to look at the 1967–1970 Nigeria’s civil war as fictionalized by Ken Saro-Wiwa, the nature of the language and implications on the English language in Nigeria. It also attempted an understanding of the moral and political consequences of war on humanity in general and the special effect of the Nigerian civil war on the minority areas within the Biafran enclave in particular as epitomized by Dukana, the setting of Sozaboy. The essay concluded that the novel itself was a bold attempt at experimentation with language, considering the fact that it was written in what the author himself described as “rotten” English.

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Abstract  

Im Beitrag wird gefragt, inwiefern in den USA Versuche, dieser Literatur aus multikultureller Sicht gerecht zu werden, tatschlich erfolgreich gewesen sind. Fhrt die in den USA gefhrte Diskussion ber Minority Literature nicht zu einer kultur-ethnischen Auslegung einzelner Werke? Literaturwissenschaftler nicht deutscher Herkunft, die in Deutschland leben und ber Migrationsliteratur arbeiten, betonen, dass die 'interkulturellen Dominanten' dieser Literatur vornehmlich von Literaturwissenschaftlern der 'zweiten Generation' erfasst werden knnen, denn nur sie verfgen ber ein erlebtes Wissen in Sprache und Kultur mindestens zweier Lnder. Im Beitrag werden Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede der drei Grundpositionen - die nordamerikanische, die deutsche und die der Wissenschaftler nicht deutscher Herkunft - herausgearbeitet und insbesondere im Hinblick auf die Thematisierung des multikulturellen Diskurses hinterfragt.

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This paper concentrates on communication with minority groups through a third party or intermediary in the public services. The variety of settings in which these encounters take place (hospitals, schools, government offices, police stations, customs checkpoints, etc.) raises questions on the role played by this intermediary, the importance of culture, the recognition of his/her job as a profession, the acceptance of the varied forms of professionalism, and the consideration of the different attitudes of the society and its institutions. This study concentrates on the different names and roles assigned to this link, with special emphasis on one of them: the interpreter and translator, and the debate surrounding the new roles he/she should (or should not) perform.

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This study looks at how combinations of two French nouns are interpreted. The order of occurrence of the constituents of two types of conceptual combinations, relation and property, was manipulated in view of determining how property-based and relation-based interpretations evolve with age. Three groups of French-speaking children (ages 6, 8, and 10) and a group of adults performed an interpretation-selection task. The results for the children indicated that while property-based interpretations increased with age, relation-based interpretations were in the majority for both combination types, whereas for the adults, relation-based interpretations were in the minority for property combinations. For the children and adults alike, the most frequent interpretations were ones in which the head noun came first and was followed by the modifier (the opposite of the order observed for English).

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The paper investigates the symbolical and real borders in the areas of contact between the Jews of the Hungarian countryside and the peasants between the two world wars. The symbolical borders are created principally by differences in mentality. These are the borders which for the most part and inherently separate. Tradition, culture, religion, way of life, in many cases the language, and the minority or majority status all separate. Most of these raise an insuperable barrier between the two social groups although - as we shall see - there are cases when some of these borders can be crossed. In contrast, economic interests and the need for social contacts generally make the Jewish and peasant communities dependent on each other, and here the borders also open up more often.

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