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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors: Marjut Anttonen, Anna Keszeg, Timea Párkonyi Soos, Micheline Lebarbier, and Sabine Winker-Piepho

Pasi Hannonen & Bo Lönnqvist & Gábor Barna (eds.): Ethnic minorities and power. Helsinki: Fonda Publishing, 2001, 195 pages Dóra Czégényi-Vilmos Keszeg: Emberek, szövegek, hiedelmek. Tanulmányok [Menschen, Texte, Volksglauben. Studien]. Kolozsvár: Kriza János Néprajzi Társaság 1, 2001, 207 Seiten Vilmos Keszeg: Mezoségi hiedelmek [Volksglauben in der Region Mezôség]. Marosvásárhely: Mentor Kiadó, 1999, 384 Seiten A propos de La Fille Difficile, un conte-type afriçain, 2001, Sous la direction de Veronika Görög-Karady et Christiane Seydou. Paris: CNRS-Éditions, CD-Rom Gerhard Schmied : Lieber Gott, gütigste Frau … Eine empirische Untersuchung von Fürbittbüchern. Passagen und Tendenzen. Studien zur materialen Religions- und Kultursoziologie, hrsg. von Michael N. Ebertz, Bd. 4. Konstanz: Universitäts-Verlag Konstanz, 1998, 137 Seiten

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On the basis of the data selected from a statistical survey ( Nyelvi tiszteletadás a magyarban ), the author establishes that the first-name informal addressing continues to spread in Hungarian, while the third-name formal one is being forced back even in villages. However, there is a difference between the Hungarians of Hungary and the Hungarian minorities of surrounding countries. Among the latter Hungarians, the third-name formal addressing is used more frequently by children and grandchildren when they talk to their parents and grandparents.

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The role of the popular play in preserving natinal identity

The example of Velika Pisanica, Croatia, with additional reference to Burgenland and Slovenia

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Imre Gráfik

Ethnographic inquiry into the folk culture of the Carpathian Basin, with particular reference to developmental trends, has revealed much new information regarding the lives of Hungarians abroad, especially regarding changing living conditions within Hungarian populations now living outside historically redrawn Hungarian state borders. It would be no exaggeration to claim that these Hungarians have, to the present day, lived under extraordinarily diverse circumstances, and that the preservation of folk culture in the minority national environment has been a decisive factor in the maintenance of their national identity. For this culture to survive and grow, however, it is essential that members of the national group learn and use their native Hungarian tongue.The present study concerns itself with the historic genre of the popular play, a cultural phenomenon that has played a special role in this regard and that in some places, both in the recent past, and today, still bears considerable significance in the preservation of minority national identity. Accordingly, this study will not extend to actual folk dramatics, though it will make reference to certain intersections and possible relationships where it seems natural to do so.

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Abstract  

After having defined the Greek francophony, a marginal literature of a minority, as well as the place which Théo Crassas occupies nowadays in that literary production, we could fetch his favorite topic: the erotic affection. Through this topic, the poet expresses a cosmic, encyclopedic, and mythical sensuality, presenting a simplified and archaic art of syntax. However, the poet is not satisfied with the ordered insobriety and the madness of the sensations; he enjoys displaying erotic energy, via the intensity of the verbal flow, emotional efflorescence, rhythmic movement, via the love towards the language. Through this technique, the reader is made to detect the force of conviction, a luminous force of a majestic “glide”, which is opposed to the melodies constantly conflicting. Furthermore, discovering this poetry, made up of positive elements, the reader becomes a witness of the things’ innocence and shares the palpitating emotion of the poetic script. The poet, concerned about the female beauty and the general perfection, seeks the mystery of the beauty, worried above all to emerge an eruptive, smooth and controlled poetry, a poetry denying the beautiful verse. Crassas creates a silky strophe, the versification being short and connected, a luminous speech, a venereal reverberation, granting his poetry with a lyric, rich precipitation of colors, sounds and images, features which form a special affectivity. In general, by bringing this great poet out of a completely ignored and very poorly diffused literature, we wish to outline a minority literature.

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translation of a minority language: The case of Dutch. In: Pym, A. & Shlesinger, M. & Jettmarová, Z. (eds) Sociocultural Aspects of Translating and Interpreting . Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 27–40. Linn S

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The study sums up the ethnographical achievements of Hiador Sztripszky (1876-1945), a now little-known Hungarian-Ruthenian ethnographer, bibliographer, linguist, literary historian and translator. The researcher, who had a thorough knowledge of the cultural history and ethnography/folkloristics of the Hungarians and the peoples living together with them, in particular of the Ruthenians and Romanians, did a great deal to study and make known the ethnocultural processes and influences. He also played a big role in collecting the material cultural heritage of the peoples of Transylvania for museums. After the Versailles Peace Treaty he was sent into early retirement as having been involved in the policy on the minorities, and in the last 25 years of his life he achieved substantial results mainly as a philologist in the study of the history and connections of the different ethnic groups and denominations. In addition to Sztripszky's work in ethnography, the study also discusses areas related to the latter problem.

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Abstract  

This essay is based on Ken Saro-Wiwa’s novel, titled Sozaboy. Apart from using this novel to interpret and locate the history and politics of Nigeria within a particular period, the essay tried to look at the 1967–1970 Nigeria’s civil war as fictionalized by Ken Saro-Wiwa, the nature of the language and implications on the English language in Nigeria. It also attempted an understanding of the moral and political consequences of war on humanity in general and the special effect of the Nigerian civil war on the minority areas within the Biafran enclave in particular as epitomized by Dukana, the setting of Sozaboy. The essay concluded that the novel itself was a bold attempt at experimentation with language, considering the fact that it was written in what the author himself described as “rotten” English.

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This paper concentrates on communication with minority groups through a third party or intermediary in the public services. The variety of settings in which these encounters take place (hospitals, schools, government offices, police stations, customs checkpoints, etc.) raises questions on the role played by this intermediary, the importance of culture, the recognition of his/her job as a profession, the acceptance of the varied forms of professionalism, and the consideration of the different attitudes of the society and its institutions. This study concentrates on the different names and roles assigned to this link, with special emphasis on one of them: the interpreter and translator, and the debate surrounding the new roles he/she should (or should not) perform.

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In the 1980s, a single female performer, Márta Sebestyén, defined Hungarian folk singing. Sebestyén’s voice, with the heavy ornamentation and chest timbre of the Hungarian-Transylvanian sound, became popular worldwide. Even as Sebestyén’s voice was popularized via electronic dance mixes and film soundtracks, in live performances and interviews she emphasized the ethnic minority Hungarians in Transylvania who served as her musical sources. The 21st century has seen the ascent of several young female singers in Hungary. They have taken the advocate role in a different direction, dramatizing the experiences of other underprivileged groups and of women. They face additional challenges: currently in Hungary, every sphere of artistic life, including folk music, must demonstrate economic independence. The young folk divas front their own groups and develop high concepts for their albums and performances. It remains to be seen whether their forthrightness will gain the same success as the modest image of the classic singer of the Hungarian folk revival style.

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Abstract  

Im Beitrag wird gefragt, inwiefern in den USA Versuche, dieser Literatur aus multikultureller Sicht gerecht zu werden, tatschlich erfolgreich gewesen sind. Fhrt die in den USA gefhrte Diskussion ber Minority Literature nicht zu einer kultur-ethnischen Auslegung einzelner Werke? Literaturwissenschaftler nicht deutscher Herkunft, die in Deutschland leben und ber Migrationsliteratur arbeiten, betonen, dass die 'interkulturellen Dominanten' dieser Literatur vornehmlich von Literaturwissenschaftlern der 'zweiten Generation' erfasst werden knnen, denn nur sie verfgen ber ein erlebtes Wissen in Sprache und Kultur mindestens zweier Lnder. Im Beitrag werden Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede der drei Grundpositionen - die nordamerikanische, die deutsche und die der Wissenschaftler nicht deutscher Herkunft - herausgearbeitet und insbesondere im Hinblick auf die Thematisierung des multikulturellen Diskurses hinterfragt.

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